Historic Online Learning Foundation

Rolling of the Drums

Rule Book

Last modified August 28th, 2018

This document provides the rules of Rolling of the Drums (ROTD), the land combat module of the Civil War Online (CWOL) game. A player who has read and understood these rules should be able to command units in ROTD. New players should start with the rules summary before going through this document. More details of the rules aree available for those seeking more information about the mechanics of ROTD by clicking on the "More Details" links in this page.

The basic rules are divided into twelve sections:

1. Strategic Map

1.1.  ROTD takes place on a strategic map of the eastern United States, 140 columns wide by 120 rows high. Each square on the strategic map is approximately 10 miles square. Each column is referred to by a letter and number; the westmost column is A0, the next is A1, and the eastmost is N9. Each row is also referred to by letter and number; the northmost row is O0, the next is O1, and the southmost is Z9. A given square is referred to by its column and row, separated by a dash. Thus, E8-Q6 is Chicago, Illinois. 
1.2.  Each strategic square has a particular terrain. There are ten possible types of terrain; open, river water, hill, forest, forested hills, mountain, high mountain, marsh, and swamp. Some strategic squares also contain cities. Squares with water, high mountain, and swamp are impassible. 
1.3.  There are three types of river on the ROTD map; fordable, unfordable, and unbridgeable. Fordable rivers will always have fords on their tactical maps (see section 2 below) where land units can cross. Unfordable and unbridgeable rivers will not have fords and can be crossed only with the assistance of bridges (see section 12 below). Both unfordable rivers and unbridgeable rivers are navigable rivers. Deep draft ships (IC, SL, FR, TR) can only sail in unbridgeable rivers; shallow draft ships (RI, RG, RT, GB) can sail in both unbridgeable and unfordable rivers. There is also railroad on the ROTD map. Each river square and railroad square is marked as USA controlled or CSA controlled, or neither if both sides have a unit (for RR control) or ships (for river control) in the square. Initial control of railroads and rivers follows the loyalty of the initial population, except where the USA has control of CSA-loyal territory at game start. [More Details]
1.4.  Each strategic square is located in a state. Each state is either a Union state, a border state, or a Confederate state. Each city is controlled by either the Union or the Confederacy. Clicking on the city icon will display its name, the state that controls it, and the amount of supplies available there.
1.5.  Strategic squares which contain one or more units are marked with flags. Blue flags represent active Union troops; red flags represent active Confederate troops. A square may be marked with more than one flag if it contains troops from boths ides. Clicking on a flag will reveal the side of the troops present in the square, and their approximate number and branch of service (infantry, cavalry, artillery, headquarters). The reported number of enemy troops may be somewhat higher or lower than the true number of units there. The reported number of friendly units will be accurate. During a campaign, a strategic square cannot contain more than 200 active brigades and two inactive brigades (in cities the limit is three inactive brigades). In peace or truce, a strategic square cannot contain more than three brigades if it contains a city and cannot contain more than two if it does not. Militia units in their home city and units in forts do not count against the limits on inactive units (note: the latter is not yet coded). If a square contains only inactive units, it will be marked with a blue or red tent icon depending on whether they are Union of Confederate. If a square contains only shattered units, it will be marked with a boxed S of the appropriate color.

  F8 F9 G0 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 H0 H1 H2  
V0
 
 
Hills
Mountains
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
 
River
 
Hills
Hills
V0
V1
Hills
 
 
 
Mountains
 
Mountains
 
 
Mountains
 
 
Mountains
Mountains
Mountains
V1
V2
 
 
 
Hills
Hills
 
Hills
Hills
Hills
Mountains
 
 
Mountains
 
 
V2
V3
 
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Mountains
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
 
 
V3
V4
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
River
 
 
Hills
River
 
Mountains
V4
V5
 
 
 
Hills
Hills
 
 
River
River
 
River
 
 
V5
V6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
River
River
 
 
 
V6
V7
 
 
 
River
River
 
 
 
 
River
 
 
 
V7
V8
 
 
 
 
 
River
River
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
V8
V9
River
 
 
 
River
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
V9
W0
 
River
River
River
River
River
River
River
 
 
 
 
 
 
W0
  F8 F9 G0 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 H0 H1 H2  

Sample strategic map: northeastern Italy (American sample map coming eventually)


Click here for map legend

2. Tactical Maps

2.1.  Each strategic square on the ROTD strategic map has an associated tactical map, 15 columns wide by 15 columns high. Each square on each tactical map is approximately two-thirds of a mile on a side. Each column and row is referred to by a number. Column 0 is the westmost column and column 14 is the eastmost column; row 0 is the northmost row and row 14 is the southmost row. Each square on a tactical map is referred to by column and row, separated by a dash. For example, 14-1 is the tactical square directly below the upper right-hand corner of a tactical map. 
2.2.  Each tactical square has a particular terrain. There are ten possible types of terrain; open, hills, high hills, river, ford, mountain, pass, water, forest, and town. River, ford, and pass squares can contain bridges. Tactical squares with mountain and water terrain are impassible, and tactical squares with river terrain are impassible unless they contain a bridge.
2.3  Rivers and mountain ranges join continuously across the edges of adjacent tactical maps. For example, if tactical square 0-5 is a river square in a given strategic square, then tactical square 14-5 will also be a river square in the strategic square west of the given one. 
2.4.  Each tactical square has a defensive terrain rating from 0 to 4 indicating the general suitability of that square for defense. A rating of 0 indicates poor defensive terrain; a rating of 4 indicates excellent defensive terrain. 
2.5.  Tactical squares which contain one or more units are marked with flags in the same way as strategic squares are. Clicking on a flag on a tactical map will reveal the identity of the units present in the tactical square. A tactical square cannot contain more than 16 brigades, and cannot contain more than 8 units allied to one another. No tactical square can contain more than 2 NB units.
2.6. City tactical squares may have forts. Forts are rated for strength (1 to 5, 5 being strongest) and capacity (measured the same way as transport capacity: 1 per man for infantry and HQs, 3 per man for cavalry, 2 per man for artillery, brigades with attached batteries count 100 men as artillerists). Clicking on a city will show the strength and size of its fort, and units in forts have an F appended to their unit IDs.
2.7.  A city can be besieged. If the city is besieged, there will be a note at the bottom of the tactical map noting that it is, and the movement of supplies, and the strategic movement of units, into and out of the city will be limited.
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  
3
4
3
0
2
2
3
0
4
4
3
4
1
1
3
0
3
2
0
3
3
4
5
3
0
1
0
4
0
4
1
0
5
6
2
2
2
0
2
4
2
3
4
6
7
0
1
1
2
2
3
0
2
2
7
8
0
0
4
3
1
1
2
2
1
8
9
0
2
1
4
4
4
3
1
2
9
10
0
0
2
2
2
1
1
4
1
10
11
1
0
1
2
3
4
4
0
1
11
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  

Sample tactical map showing river with
ford, hills, forest, town, and four brigades

 

3. Units

3.1.  The basic unit of ROTD is the brigade. Brigades come in six types; infantry, cavalry, horse artillery, light artillery, siege artillery, naval battery, and militia. Each brigade has a nationality and a number within that nationality, and its unit ID is composed of its nationality, number, and type. Thus, US3IN is the Union's 3rd Infantry Brigade. There are also two types of headquarters units, army headquarters and corps headquarters, and pontoon bridge units. Each brigade is composed a number of men, a number of associated regiments, and a number of attached artillery batteries (possibly zero).
3.2.  Each brigade is rated for quality, experience, morale, fatigue,and initiative. Quality represents the innate abilities of the officers and men of the brigade. Experience represents their exposure to combat over the course of previous campaigns. Morale represents their elan and willingness to fight. Initiative represents their ability to respond quickly to tactical orders [More Details]. Fatigue represents their endurance and ability to execute orders. Most actions a brigade can take increase its fatigue [More Details]. At the end of each turn, cavalry, horse artillery, and army headquarters units regain 4 points of fatigue; other units regain 3.
3.3.  Each brigade is located in a particular strategic square and a particular tactical square within that strategic square. 
3.4.  Each brigade carries one of two particular types of weapon. Infantry and militia can carry muskets (basic weapon) or rifles (more advanced); artillery can be smoothbore (basic) or rifled (more advanced); cavalry can carry single-shot carbines (basic) or breechloaders (more advanced). Infantry and cavalry  units with attached batteries can have either type of artillery weapon as well as either type of personal arm. Units equipped with the basic weapons can upgrade to the advanced types.
3.5.  Each brigade has an commander and a deputy commander, both of whom receive reports from the unit and can send orders for it. Each player has a password that identifies him or her as the commander or deputy commander of his or her brigades. Commanders and deputy commanders are assigned by the Secretary of War of the brigade's side, or by the commander of any army headquarters unit of that side. Officers appointed to command AQ units must hold the rank of general or lieutenant general; officers appointed as executive commanders may also hold the rank of major general. Officers appointed to command CQ units must hold the rank of general, lieutenant general, or major general: officers appointed as executive commanders may be of any rank. Exception: If all officers of the rank of general or lieutenant general are already commanding an AQ, or such ranks have not been authorized, then any officer may command the rest; if all officers of the rank of major general or higher are already commanding a CQ, then any officer may command the rest. A player may not command more than one AQ, nor more than two CQs (a player may command one AQ and two CQs). This rule is not enforced until after all assign orders for a turn are processed, so a player may temporarily command more than one AQ or more than two CQs, as long as that player is back within the limit by the time his side's final assign order is processed for the turn. There is no limit on the number of Q units on which a player is XO, if he holds proper rank; this restriction only applies to COs.

FR1IN

Commander: Louis Davout Deputy: Andre Massena
Location: G8-V5 strategic, 0-2 tactical
Strength: 3000 Batteries: 0
Quality: Very Good Experience: 8 Morale: 6 Fatigue: 0
Supplies: 0 Ammunition: 1
Supply: FR1CQ Communications: FR1CQ

Sample unit status report


3.5.  A state can merge of its units into another if they are of the same type (IN, LA, MI, etc). If the combined unit exceeds the maximum size allowed for that type (3100 = 5 regiments and 1 battery for infantry, 1600 = 5 regiments and 1 battery for cavalry, 400 = 4 batteries for artillery, 1500 = 3 regiments for militia) then the excess manpower returns to the manpower pool at the end of the following season. HQs may not be combined at all. The units must be in the same strategic square, and if there is an enemy unit present in the strategic square, then they must be in the same tactical square. If CS1IN is merged into CS2IN, then the combined unit will be CS2IN, its commander and location will be those of CS2IN, its strength and batteries will be the sum of the strength and batteries of the two merging units, its quality, experience, morale, fatigue, and ammunition will be the average of the two merging units weighted by their strengths, and the new unit will be carrying a supply only if both units were before the merger. Merger will happen during the supply phase (before movement and combat).
3.6.  Units gain experience by fighting in battles, 1 to 5 points in each tactical phase of combat depending on the odds of the battle, receiving more points in battles with even odds. They also gain experience by marching (making strategic moves), 1 point per turn, until they reach 8 experience, at which point further marching does not increase their experience. At the end of each campaign, units lose a fraction of their experience, reflecting turnover of men within the unit and the effects of inactivity if they have not been gaining experience by fighting and marching.
3.7.  Units gain morale by being in winning battles or by being close to them. They lose morale by being in losing battles or by being close to them. Larger battles produce greater increases and decreases in morale. Units that capture cities, or are near them, gain morale, and units near cities that are captured lose morale. Morale starts at 50 for each unit and moves up or down. Each turn morale tends to return towards 50 if the unit has not gained or lost morale from battle or city capture. [More Details]

4. Detection

4.1. During a campaign, on the strategic map, active units can detect friendly units up to 3 squares away, except army headquarters units which can detect friendly units up to 5 squares away. Units can detect all other units up to 1 square away, except cavalry brigades which can detect other units up to 2 squares away if they are in communications and their strength is 250 or greater, or 3 squares away if they are in communications and their strength is 500 or greater. Cavalry units without communications or with strength below 250 detect 1 square away. Enemy units can be detected only if the detecting unit has a line of contact to the enemy unit (see rule 11.2 below) except that for this purpose only, lines of contact can be traced through squares adjacent to enemy cavalry units in order to detect enemy cavalry units (but not other kinds of units). Inactive units do not detect other units at all. During peace or truce turns, active units detect friendly units up to 5 squares away except for army headquarters units which detect friendly units up to 10 squares away, and detect other units up to 3 squares away. Position reports will display all squares within 5 squares of an active unit. Number of enemy units will be reported only approximately. Units reported as  "brigades"  normally have 2-3 units, "division" have 3-5, "divisions" have 6-8, and "corps" has more than 8. If more than one corps is reported, the number of units is approximately 12 times the number of corps reported. Reports will also have the letters I,C,A,H to indicated infantry, cavalry, artillery, and headquarters units, and these letters are also only approximately correct. Militia will be reported as infantry in this instance.
4.2.  On the tactical map, units can detect all same-side units and the nearest enemy unit (or units if two or more are equally close) in each of the eight directions (north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest). Headquarters units (army and corps) do not sight units nor block sight by enemy units (this prevents them from taking advantage of their immunity from combat to do screening or reconnaissance - see rule 10.2 below).
4.3.  Units in the strategic square of port cities (whether in the city tactical square or not) will receive reports of the ships in the harbor and attached coastal waters. Ships located in the harbor, but not the coastal waters, will automatically report the identities of ROTD units in that port's tactical square, and have a chance to report the identities of ROTD units in the port's strategic square but not in its tactical square. Units in river strat squares will receive reports of the ships in the same strat square as themselves if they have an exit cone (in any direction) that is clear of enemy units as far as the river. Ships will report the identities of ROTD units on the riverbanks, but not units that are inland. Garrisons of off-ROTD-map ports will report the presence of ships in those ports to the Secretary of the Navy with a one-turn delay.
4.4.  During a campaign, when units move tactically, their movement is reported to all friendly units in the same strategic square. If the start and end points of their movement are visible to any other unit in the strategic square, the movement is reported to all other units in the square as well. If only the end point is visible, then only the end point is reported; if only the start point is visible, then only the start point is reported. If neither the start point nor the end point of the movement is visible to an enemy unit, then the movement is not reported to those units. A movement through a waypoint is treated as two separate movements for the purposes of this rule.
4.5.  During a campaign, if a unit moves strategically, its departure is reported to all friendly units in the square it is departing from, and if the unit is visible to any other unit, then the departure is reported to all other units in the square. Its arrival is reported to all friendly units in the square it is arriving in, and if its arrival point is visible to any other unit, then its arrival is reported to all other units.
4.6.  On the strategic map, each player can see only what is visible to the units assigned to his personal command. On the tactical map, each player can see what is visible to any same-side or actively allied unit on the same tactical map.
4.7.  Each side's War Minister will receive two types of additional information about enemy dispositions. First, he will receive occasional reports of the location of headquarters units; second, he will receive reports of the location of enemy troops on his nation's territory and not within sight of that nation's troops. The locations of these reports will be one turn out of date and may contain errors, sometimes large ones.

5. Turn Sequence

5.1. ROTD is played in turns. One campaign consists of 12 campaign turns, unless all hostilities end earlier.
5.2. Campaign turns are divided into a supply phase, tactical phases, and strategic phases. Combat occurs during tactical phases, after tactical movement is completed. Tactical movement happens first and strategic movement happens subsequently, with three exceptions. First, at the start of the turn, units in squares where battles were fought the previous turn can make a strategic move to withdraw from the battle. Second, in the middle of tactical movement, there is one phase of strategic movement, to permit brigades to join a battle in progress if they are in an adjacent strategic square. Third, after strategic movement there is a final phase of tactical movement, to permit arriving units to deploy on the tactical map. Each turn has five tactical and six strategic phases. Thus, a ROTD turn begins with a supply phase, followed by strategic withdrawal, followed by two phases of tactical movement, then one phase of strategic movement, then two more phases of tactical movement, then five more phases of strategic movement, ending with a final tactical phase in which combat does not occur. The following diagram shows the exact sequence of a campaign turn.


In peace and truce turns, there is no supply phase, and there is no division into tactical and strategic phases; instead all movement happens simultaneously.
5.3. At the end of each turn, every player will receive two reports. The first one contains a list of all events that happened during the turn that were observed by the player's units. The second one contains maps and unit status reports showing the positions of the player's units at the start of the following turn.

Click here for more information on turn reports

Click here for more information on position reports

6. Orders

6.1. Units send orders for each brigade, for each turn, at the ROTD Order Desk. Orders may be sent by the commander of the unit or the deputy commander of the unit. No other player may send orders for the unit unless it is reassigned. If multiple orders are sent for a unit, the last one sent by the commander is accepted; if the commander did not send orders, then the last order sent by the deputy commander is accepted. The orders sent govern the actions of the brigade during the turn. During campaign turns, players submit orders using the campaign order submission form, which is divided into six sections.
6.2.  In the first section, players type the ID of the unit which they wish to send orders, and their password to identify themselves as commander or deputy commander.
6.3.  In the second section, players send orders for strategic movement. Players can specify a path for movement, and can also indicate that the unit should pursue enemy units moving strategically, or should move to the nearest adjacent battle square,or nearest adjacent square with allied or enemy units. They may also specify an entry square, and indicate whether they wish the unit to halt its movement if it encounters an enemy unit during strategic movement, in the case that it moves into an enemy-held square (halt on detection) or an enemy moves into its square (halt on enemy entry), or if further movement would require a forced march.
6.4. In the third section, players specify tactical movement. They can specify a destination square and an intermediate waypoint (they do not need to specify the entire movement path), and the tactical phase for movement to take place. They can specify that a unit should not enter a fort if it enters a city with a fort (units will enter the fort unless ordered not to). They can also indicate that the unit should engage an enemy combat unit in its strategic square, and the tactical phases in which it should do so. They also specify the line in the battle formation in which the unit should attempt to place itself (first line, second line, or rear) if it finds itself in combat.
6.5.  In the fourth section, players specify the unit's reaction to the movement of other enemy units. Units can give support to battles in nearby squares if combat takes place, or can move to intercept enemy units moving nearby. In both cases, units can specify the area in which they wish to react, by specifying its center tactical square and its radius, and the tactical phases in which they wish to react.
6.6.  In the fifth section, players indicate the offensive and defensive postures they wish their units to take, in a range between seeking combat and avoiding it.
6.7.  In the sixth section, players indicate the amount of supplies they wish their units to carry, and the source from which they wish to draw supply, if they desire. A unit need not specify a supply source; if it does not, the closest available source will be used. It is only necessary to specify a source if there are two or more available sources and it matters to the commander which source is used. If a unit does not wish to draw supply at all, it can enter "None" and it will not draw supply.
6.8.  In general, players may submit orders in all sections in any combinations they desire.
6.9.  If a unit fails to send orders, default orders will be carried out for the unit. The unit will not move, will use skirmish formations on attack and defense, will seek the front line in combat, will support a same-side or actively allied brigade in combat within 2 tactical squares of its start-of-turn position, and will draw one unit of supply.
6.10.  During peace or truce turns, players send orders using the peace/truce order submission form, which has only one section, in which players specify the unit ID, their password, and the strategic and tactical locations to which they wish to move the unit.
6.11.  On all turns, if a unit is reassigned during a turn, or its commander or deputy changes passwords during a turn, then orders for the unit submitted before the reassignment or password change was submitted are evaluated using the old assignment and passwords, and orders for the unit submitted afer the reassignment or password change was submitted are evaluated using the new assignment and passwords. [More Details]
 

Click here for more information on the order submission form

7. Strategic Movement

Rules 7.1 through 7.16 apply to campaign turns: rule 7.17 and 7.18 apply to pregame deployment.

7.1.
Units can move one square on the strategic map in each phase of strategic movement. Infantry units, light artillery units, pontoon bridges, and corps headquarters have a normal movement allowance of three squares per turn; horse artillery units, cavalry units, and army headquarters units have a normal allowance of four squares per turn. Siege artillery have a normal movement allowance of two squares per turn. Militia have a normal movement allowance of two squares per turn; they may not move to a strategic square outside their home state. Units pay one point of fatigue for every strategic square moved, or two if moving into a strategic square with mountain terrain or marsh terrain. Units with fatigue in excess of 18 may not move strategically.
7.2. A unit's normal movement allowance is decreased by one square if it is carrying supplies, as it is compelled to remain with its wagon train, and is decreased by one square if it is not in communications (see section 11, Communications and Supply, below).
7.3. A unit can move one strategic square beyond its normal allowance as a forced march, but pays three fatigue points (four points, if cavalry or horse artillery), rather than one, for the additional square of movement. Militia and pontoon bridges may not force-march.
7.4. Units specify the path they wish to take in strategic movement in the strategic movement section of the orders page, one square per box. Diagonal movement is permitted, but diagonal movement between two water squares, two swamp squares, or two impassible mountain squares is blocked. (Diagonal movement between two different types of impassible terrain is permitted.) If a unit is ordered to move to a strategic square not adjacent to the one it is in, it will halt its movement at that point. Example: a unit ordered to move G4-V6 G5-V6 G7-V8 will halt in G5-V6 because G7-V8 is not adjacent to G5-V6.
7.5.  A unit in a strategic square where a battle was fought on the previous turn may make a strategic withdrawal during the strategic withdrawal phase. Units making strategic withdrawal cannot move to a strategic square containing active hostile combat units at the start of the turn. If a unit making a diagonal strategic move would be interrupted (see rule 7.15 below) then the move cannot be made. A unit that makes a strategic withdrawal does not move in strategic phase 1, having made its first move in the strategic withdrawal phase, but continues moving normally in strategic phase 2 and later. It pays two fatigue points rather than one for making a strategic withdrawal move, and will lose some stragglers; 10% to 20% if an enemy unit is in an adjacent tactical square, 0% to 5% if not. Units can skip a phase of strategic movement by leaving a blank box in the strategic movement sequence; it can still movent its full movement allowance as long as it fills in at least three (four for CV/HA) of the boxes.This permits units can choose in which of the six phases of strategic movement they wish to make their three or four moves, as long as they make only one in any given phase.
7.6.  In each strategic phase, cavalry and horse artillery units move first and other units second. Within groups, the order of movement is random, and different in each phase.
7.7. A unit cannot make a strategic movement unless it has a path to the edge of its current tactical map which is free of enemy combat units (see illustration). Neutral units block movement in this way only when in their home nation, and impassible terrain does not block movement this way except for uncrossable rivers and mountain chains.  [More Details] Units cannot march strategically if to do so, they must pass diagonally between two non-actively allied units adjacent to them on their present tactical map. Units in besieged cities may not move strategically. If a unit's move is blocked in one strategic phase, it will attempt to make the move again in the next strategic phase, and will continue the rest of its movement orders, each one phase later than ordered (including any phases skipped).
7.8. If a unit is in the presence of enemy combat units (that is, non-HQ units) at its turn to move, then it cannot make a strategic movement that requires it to cross a river or mountain range. It must first cross to the proper side of the river/range in tactical movement. If the river is unfordable, and there is no bridge nor a river transport group to act as a ferry, then it cannot make a strategic move across the river at all. (For ferrying rules see rule 9.7 below.) A unit marching past the end of a river (e.g. K3-S4 to K3-S3) must enter to the correct side of the tactical map, where column or row 7 divides the sides of a tactical map with no river or mountain. When moving from a non-river square into the first square of the river there is no restriction on entry squares. A unit also cannot make a strategic move out of a marsh strategic square unless it is at the proper edge or corner of the tactical map to do so. Neutral combat units block movement in this way only when in their home nation. [More Details]
7.9. If a unit selects the "halt on detection" option in strategic movement, it will halt strategic movement when it moves into an enemy-occupied square. If it does not select that option, then it will attempt to continue its strategic movement (the enemy unit may block its further strategic movement under rule 7.7). 
7.10. If a unit selects the "halt on enemy entry" option in strategic movement, it will halt strategic movement upon detecting an enemy unit entering its strategic square. If it does not select that option, then it will attempt to continue its strategic movement (again, the enemy unit may block its further strategic movement under rule 7.7). 
7.11. A unit can select the "do not force-march" option in strategic movement. If it does so, then it will not make any move which would require it to force-march. This is true both of pursuit and march to battle/allies/enemy moves, and of programmed moves, either a fourth programmed move (fifth if cavalry), or a third programmed move (fourth if cavalry) if the unit has been diagonally redirected and required an extra step to finish its programmed move.
7.12. A unit can select the "pursuit" option in strategic movement. If it does so, then if an enemy unit leaves its strategic square, it will attempt to follow that enemy unit. It may fail due to rule 7.7. If a unit has both a strategic movement path and the pursuit option selected, it will follow the strategic path and attempt pursuit until it makes a successful pursuit, at which time its strategic path will be cancelled and it will exclusively pursue for the rest of the turn. A unit in pursuit mode will make a forced march to pursue if it can do so, unless the Do not force-march order prevents it. A unit can be ordered to limit the number of pursuit moves it will make.
7.13. A unit can select the "march to battle", "march to allies", and "march to enemies" options in strategic movement. If it selects March to Battle, and does not have a specified strategic move to make, then it will find the largest battle (strategic square with at least one same-side or actively allied unit and at least one hostile unit present) in or adjacent to its own strategic square. If the largest battle is in its own square, it will not move. Otherwise it will move to the square with the largest battle, force-marching to do so if necessary. If there are no battles in the same or adjacent square the unit will not move. A unit with a specified strategic path will not march to battle until it completes its specified path. March to Allies and March to Enemies work similarly, except that they depend only on the number of allied or enemy units in adjacent squares and the unit's present square, rather than the total number of units in a battle. If a unit specifies more than one of these options, then March to Battle takes priority, followed by March to Allies, and then March to Enemy.
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
              U              
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
For a unit at U to move strategically, the
appropriate colored squares (red for north,
gray for northwest, etc.) must be clear of
enemy units to the edge of the tactical map
7.14. When units move strategically, they are placed on the tactical map in their new strategic square along the first four rows or columns of the edge of the map in the direction from which they entered. For example, a unit that moved north will be placed on the south edge of its new tactical map (ie, in rows 11 to 14), or a unit that moved east will be placed on the west edge (in columns 0 to 3). A unit that moved northeast can enter in the west half of the south edge, or the south half of the west edge, and similarly for the other diagonal movement directions. A unit can specify an entry tactical square for its strategic movement. If it does not, the coordinates of the tactical square in which it begins the turn will be used. The unit will enter the tactical map as close to the entry square as possible. For example, if the unit specifies the entry square 5-4, then the unit will enter at 5-3 if moving south, at 3-4 if moving east, at 11-4 if moving west, at 5-3 if moving southeast (closer to 5-2 than the alternative choice of 3-4), and so forth. If the east (or west) edge is the same distance as the north (or south) edge, then the unit will shift east (or west). Example: A unit moving southeast with an entry square of 5-5 will enter at 3-5, not at 5-3. A unit cannot enter the map in a tactical square containing an enemy unit, nor one with an enemy unit between it and the map edge. The entry square will be adjusted as necessary to prevent this. [More Details] If a unit is moving from one strategic square with mountain or river terrain to another, then if enemy units, or neutral units on home soil, are present in its starting strategic square, then it must enter on the same side of the river/range that it was on at the start of its strategic movement. If a unit in such a situation tries to move strategically along a river or mountain range and attempts to enter on the opposite bank/side than it starts on, then its entry square will be adjusted to keep it on the correct bank/side. [More Details]
7.15.  If a unit attempts to move diagonally, so that it passes between two squares adjacent to its current square, then its movement may be interrupted by an active (not inactive or shattered) enemy unit in one of the adjacent squares the moving unit is passing between. The unit will be charged one step of strategic movement and be assessed fatigue points. However, in the next strategic phase it will attempt to continue its movement to its original destination square, and in subsequent strategic movement phases will attempt to remain on its planned movement path, force-marching if necessary to complete its move. [More Details]
7.16.  Movement into the squares of Canada is forbidden.
7.17.  During pre-game deployment, all  units except NBs and militia, whether they are active or inactive, may move to any strategic square owned by their nation, meaning that the closest city in the same state is controlled by their nation. They are not limited by distance or by movement paths; they need only specify the strategic square in which they wish to be placed, and the tactical square. (Note: a distance limit may be added, but hasn't been yet.) Exception: The Union may move units to any square in Confederate territory where it already has a unit in the at-start positions. (Normally this will apply only to, at most, Fort Monroe VA. Alexandria VA, and Pensacola FL.)  If the tactical square is left blank, the current tactical square will be kept if it is passable terrain in the new strategic square. If the strategic square is left blank, the unit will move to a new tactical square in its current strategic square. Movement into Canada remains forbidden. Militia units can only move within their home states in pre-game deployment, and only to strategic squares owned by their nation. NBs may not move at all. Movement orders are sent by the commander and executive of the unit, just as on regular game turns.
7.18.  Units may not board transports in pre-game deployment.

8. Rail Movement

8.1. Units which begin their turns in strategic squares with friendly-controlled railroads, and do not make strategic movements by foot, may make rail movements. If no enemy unit is present, the moving unit can be anywhere in the strategic square; if an enemy unit is present, the moving unit must be in a railroad tactical square. The distance that units may move on one turn is 40 squares along the railroad. Paths cannot include diagonal moves, but must be north, south, east, or west. There will eventually be a limit on the total amount of rail movement each side can do in one turn as well., but for now there isn't. A unit which makes a strategic move under rules section 7 cannot also move by river or rail. Rail movement takes place immediately after the last phase of strategic movement.
8.2.  A rail square is friendly-controlled if the last combat unit (non-Q, non-PB) to occupy that strategic square was friendly. If a square contains both friendly and enemy combat units, then if a friendly combat unit is in a railroad tactical square and no enemy combat unit is, the railroad is friendly-controlled. If no combat unit is on the railroad, or both sides have combat units on the railroad, the railroad is not controlled by either side and cannot be used for rail movement. [A river square is friendly-controlled if it contains no enemy river batteries and the last warship to sail in that square was friendly. This probably belongs in the naval rules now.]
8.3.  To move by rail, units enter the destination to which they want to move and an entry square. They may optionally submit a waypoint to move through as well. Units will move via a valid path between the unit's location and its destination (and through the waypoint if one is submitted) if it is less than 80 squares long. Although the path can be up to 80 squares long, the unit will only move 40 squares along that path. If the unit cannot reach the destination square in a path up to 80 squares long, either because enemy units block the move or because it exceeds its movement limit, it will move as far as it can along the shortest blocked path towards the destination (through the waypoint if one is submitted). If the unit's shortest path requires it to move more than 80 squares, the unit will not move at all. [More Details] Units pay one fatigue point for moving by rail, regardless of the distance. Note: the program does not always find the shortest path between the location and destination. It is best not to order moves longer than about 50 squares, as you will only move 40 in any event. [More Details]
8.4.  Units moving by rail can enter in any railroad tactical square. If a rail entry order is sent, it will be used; if the entry square is not a railroad square, the entry will be adjusted to another square in the same row (if moving north or south) or column (if moving east or west) that is a railroad square, if possible. If no entry square is ordered, then if the unit has a city as its destination, the city tac square will be the entry square, otherwise it will be the unit's current tactical location.
8.5.  Railroad track can be destroyed by a unit that spends a turn in the strategic square where they control the railroad without moving strategically or engaging in combat. The railroad must remain under that side's control during the turn. If the strategic square contains an unfordable river, then the unit must either be on the same side of the river as the railroad or have some means to cross the river (pontoon bridge, railroad bridge, or ferry). For now, contact the GA to have railroad destroyed. Railroad can be rebuilt if destroyed. This takes one turn, does not require a unit, but does require that the railroad in the square be under control of the side doing the repair. It costs 10 Eg and 5 MPs. Destroying railroad track in a square with a railroad bridge does not remove the bridge unless that is requested.
8.6.  Railroad bridges may be destroyed. To do so a unit must be in the bridge tactical square and must not move or fight during the turn. Destroying the bridge will remove the track in the square as well. Railroad bridges may be rebuilt, which will cost some Eg and some MP, not many, probably about the same as repairing track will cost.

9. Tactical Movement

Rules 9.1 through 9.12 apply to campaign turns; rule 9.13 applies to pregame deployment.

9.1.
Units can move on the tactical map in each phase of tactical movement. Cavalry and horse artillery and army headquarters units can move up to six tactical squares in each tactical phase. Other units, including corps headquarters units and pontoon bridges, can move up to four tactical squares in each phase. If there are hostile units in their strategic square, units pay one fatigue point for each phase in which they move tactically; otherwise tactical movement does not incur fatigue. Units with fatigue in excess of 8 may not move tactically if enemy units are present in their strategic square.
9.2. Units moving tactically specify the tactical square to which they wish to move and, optionally, an intermediate waypoint to move through en route. Units may specify a particular tactical square (e.g. 5-9) or the nearest ford or the nearest mountain pass as their destination. They can only specify a particular square as a waypoint. If no waypoint is specified, then units move in a straight line to the destination square; if a waypoint is specified, units move in a straight line to the waypoint, then in a straight line to the destination from the waypoint. These are referred to as "specified moves" below. They can also specify the tactical phase in which they wish the movement to begin. Movement will commence in the specified phase (in the first phase if no starting phase is specified). If the unit can reach its destination in one phase, it will complete the move; if not the unit will move as far as it can along the straight-line path to the destination (via the waypoint, if one is specified), and will continue moving in later tactical phases until the movement is completed or the turn ends. Units can also specify not to enter a fort if they move into a fortified city tac square. Units currently in forts wishing to exit, or currently in tactical squares with forts wishing to enter the fort, can do so by sending an order to move to their current tactical square (the fort's tactical square) and checking or not checking the "Do not enter fort" order, as appropriate. Units moving in and out of forts, but not moving to a different tactical square, will move before any unit which is moving to a different tactical square.
9.3. If a unit encounters an enemy unit during its move, either at the destination or prior to the destination, then its movement is halted, as is the movement of the enemy unit or units it encountered, and a combat begins. [More Details] A unit which is in evade offensive mode and cannot attack an enemy unit this way, or a unit which cannot enter combat for other reasons, will instead halt one square short of the enemy unit. If a unit's movement calls for it to encounter a neutral unit, then it will not move at all.
9.4
. Units outside a besieged city that are not hostile to the side controlling the city may not enter the city tac square. Units that are hostile to the controlling side may enter the tac square of the city and a combat will result.
9.5. If a unit is in the same strategic square as an enemy unit, then if its path to its destination or waypoint square in tactical movement crosses through impassible terrain, or crosses a cliff (a border between a high hill tactical square and a non-hill tactical square) then the unit's path is blocked and it does not move at all. This rule applies when the moving unit is in the same strategic square as a neutral only if the neutral unit is in its home nation or a nation with which it is actively allied. This limitation is not applied if there is no enemy or neutral unit present in the square, except in the case of river and mountain squares - see rule 9.7 below. [More Details] If a unit moves in more than one tactical phase, and an enemy or neutral unit enters the square between tactical phases (either between tac phases 2 and 3, or between phases tac 4 and 5) then the limitation will apply in the tac phases after the enemy or neutral unit enters.
9.6. In each tactical phase, units move in order of initiative, 1 first, 5 last. Within initiative groups, units move in a random order, and the order is different in each tactical phase of the turn.
9.7. Units may not cross from one side of a river or mountain range to another in tactical movement unless they use an appropriate ford, bridge, or pass square as the waypoint for the movement; units ordered to cross without using a ford/bridge/pass waypoint will not move. This rule applies even if no enemy unit is present. If a river has no ford and no bridge, then units can use a river transport group or a pontoon bridge to cross the river. See rule 12 below for details.
9.8. Units may also be ordered to engage the nearest enemy combat unit. Units may be ordered to engage in specified starting and ending phases. If a unit has two or more enemy units that are equally near, it will attack the one requiring the fewest diagonal moves. If the enemy unit is farther away than the unit's tactical movement allowance, the unit will move as far as it can in the direction of the enemy unit it is trying to engage, but if it continues to engage in a later tactical phase, will re-select the nearest enemy unit at the start of that later phase. If a unit has both an engage order and a specified order (see rule 9.2), it will make the specified move, and begin to engage the nearest enemy unit only in the tactical phase after the one in which it reaches its destination. Units will not engage an enemy headquarters unit unless there is no enemy combat unit available to engage. If a unit fails a morale check, it will cease attempting to engage enemy units.
9.9. Units can specify the line in which they wish to fight if they enter combat during tactical movement. A unit cannot occupy the second line or rear unless another unit occupies the line or lines in front of them; if not, the unit will automatically move forward as required. They can also specify the attitude they wish to take if they find themselves attacking or defending in combat. Assault and last-ditch defense mode represent extreme effort in combat resulting in increased combat strength, but heavier losses. Skirmish mode represents a lighter form of combat, and evade mode represents leaving a screen in front of the position while keeping the majority of the unit disengaged.
9.10. Units can indicate the desire to support same-side or  units in combat. If a unit has an order to support, then after all other tactical movement is finished, the unit will move to join a battle in progress. Units must specify a location at which to support and a radius around that location. For example, if a unit specifies support location 10-5 and a radius of 2, then the unit will move to support any combat in the box between columns 8 and 12 and between rows 3 and 7. If there are two or more combats in side the support radius, then the supporting unit will move to the closest one; if two are equally close, it will move to the one in which the odds against its side are the worst. Support moves cannot be longer than two tactical squares, or three tactical squares for CV/HA units.
9.11. Units can also move to intercept the movement of other units. If a unit has an order to intercept, then it specifies an interception location and a radius around that location in the same manner that it specifies a box for a support order. If an enemy unit moves through the specified box, or if a neutral unit does so when the given unit is in a strategic square controlled by its own state, then the unit with the intercept order will move to engage the enemy/neutral unit if it can do so. Interception of enemy units will result in a combat. Interception of neutral units will not, but will halt the neutral unit's tactical move at the intercept point. The interception will take place when the moving unit reaches the edge of the intercepting unit's intercept box if possible; if not, it will be made at the first possible point of contact, which may or may not be inside the intercept box. If the enemy/neutral unit is moving only one square, then interception is not possible. If two units attempt to intercept the same enemy/neutral unit, then the first one to move in interception determines the point of interception, and all subsequent interceptions must take place at that point. A unit may move to intercept an enemy/neutral unit whose point of interception is farther away than the unit's movement allowance (4 or 6 squares depending on branch) but if the interception requires the unit to move more than its tac movement allowance, it will move only to its allowed limit, and will not intercept the enemy/neutral unit. Waypoints are not used with intercept movements. A unit which has selected evade as its attack mode may not intercept the movement of enemy/neutral units.
9.12. In any given tactical phase, a unit will make only one move from among specified move, engage move, and intercept move. If a unit is ordered to make more than one kind of move, then the priority is as follows: If an opportunity to make an intercept move arises before the unit's opportunity to make its own move, then it will do so, and will not make an engage or specified move that tactical phase. If not, then when it gets the opportunity to make its own tactical move, it will make a specified move if it has one, if not it will make an engage move if it has that order, and if it has neither it will not move. In the latter case only, if an opportunity to intercept later in the tactical phase occurs, the unit will intercept; in the former two cases it will not, since it has already made one of the other types of move. However, a unit which has made a specified move, an engage move, or an intercept move may also make a support move in the support phase if it can otherwise do so. (For instance, units that intercepted will normally be in combat and hence unable to make a support move.)
9.13. In pregame deployment, units may deploy in any passable tac square in any strategic square to which they can deploy (see rule 7.17).

10. Combat

10.1. During a campaign turn, if at the end of a tactical movement phase, two or more units hostile to one another are in the same tactical square, combat begins. Combat cannot occur on peace or truce turns. Combat occurs in two segments, a firing segment and a melee segment.  Not all battles have a melee segment; a battle has a melee segment only if at least one attacking unit is in Assault or Attack modes, at least one defending unit is in Defend or Last-Ditch mode, and at least one attacking unit is able to move to close quarters. [More Details] Warships may fire support into land battles if they are in the same strategic square as the land battle, the land battle is happening in a tactical square which is adjacent to the river or coastline, and no enemy warships or NBs are present. See WISC rule 7.7 for details.
10.2.  Army and corps headquarters units do not engage in combat. If an enemy unit enters their tactical square, there is a small chance that they will shatter (see section 13 below). If they do not shatter, they will fall back before the attacking unit and take no further part in the battle. If they cannot fall back from the attack they will shatter. If a corps HQ is carrying supplies when it is shattered or forced to fall back, the supplies will be destroyed.
10.3. At the beginning of combat, units place themselves into lines according to their orders. There must be at least one unit in the front line, and there cannot be a unit in the rear unless there is at least one in the second line. If no unit wishes to be in the first line, or the second line when a unit is needed there, a unit is selected randomly and placed in that line.
10.4. The number of units that can fit in the front line depends on the size of each unit and the length of the battle line. If the attacking side entered the tactical square where the combat occurred from one direction, then the front line can contain up to 3000 infantry, or 4000 cavalry, or 375 artillerists, or combination thereof where 1 infantryman takes up 1 space, 1 cavalryman takes up 3/4 spaces (for each three men on line, one is in the rear holding horses), 1 artilleryman takes up 8 spaces, and 3000 spaces total are available. If an infantry or cavalry brigade has a battery attached, then 100 of its men count as artillerists. For example, an infantry unit with 2400 men and no battery takes up 2400 spaces, but one with 2500 men and 1 battery takes up 3200 spaces (2400 infantry plus 100 artillerists at 8 spaces each). If more units wish to be in the front line than there is space available for them, then each unit contributes enough strength in proportion to fill the front line, and the remaining strength fights from the rear line (even if no unit is in the second line). If a side's front line is reduced by casualties in the firing phase, then the strength in the rear line will return to the front line to fill the space. If the attackers entered from more than one direction, then the front line extends by another 3000 men for each direction the attackers came from, or 1500 if an additional direction is adjacent to another, or 0 if an additional direction is adjacent to two others. Example: If attackers came from the north and east, the front can contain 6000 men, but if they came from the north and northeast, only 4500, and if they came from north, northeast, and east, again 6000. The second and third line have the same size limit as the first. Units that do not fit into the third line cannot engage (but will take casualties). [ More Details ]
10.5. Cavalry fights dismounted and infantry do not form squares.
10.6. The effective strength of a unit depends on the number of men and batteries in the unit, the weapons it has, the quality, experience, morale, and fatigue of the troops, the terrain in which the battle takes place, attack or defense mode (units in assault and last-ditch defense mode have higher effective strength; units in skirmish and evade modes have lower effective strength), whether it is protected by fortifications, and whether the unit moved to enter the battle square or not (units that did not move have a higher effective strength). Militia fight at reduced strength if moving, and if not in a town tactical square. In a battle, if there is a unit on one side which did not move in the tactical phase (this can be true of only one side) then that side is defending, uses its defensive mode, and gains the defensive terrain bonuses; the other side is attacking. If all units in a battle moved tactically into the battle during the phase (whether by ordered movement, interception, or support movement) then all units on both sides use their offensive combat mode and do not get defensive terrain bonuses. Units attacking fortifications have reduced effective strengths as long as at least one defending unit was in the battle tactical square at the start of the tactical phase. [More Details]
10.7. In the firing segment, all infantry in the front line and all artillery in the first or second line (including batteries attached to infantry or cavalry brigades) may fire. The casualties that a side inflicts on its opponent are proportional to the effective strength of its firing units, and are distributed among the enemy units in the first and second lines in the combat in proportion to their strengths, increased if the unit is in assault or last-ditch defense mode, and reduced if the unit is in skirmish or evade mode. Units in the rear line will not receive casualties in the firing segment. Each unit that engages in the firing segment receives 1 fatigue point, including an infantry or cavalry unit with an attached battery for which only the battery fires. Units in forts receive reduced casualties.
10.8. Units that suffer 2% or greater losses in the firing segment must take a morale check. The chance of passing the morale check depends on the unit's quality, experience, number of men lost, and whether the unit's flanks are anchored or exposed. [More Details] A unit has one flank anchored if there is an adjacent square containing same-side or actively allied troops or impassible terrain. A unit has both flanks anchored if there are two adjacent squares, not in adjacent directions (example, not north and northeast), with same-side or actively allied troops or impassible terrain and the front line is at least 75% full (ie, 2250 infantry, 3000 cavalry, 281 artillerists, or a proportional number of mixed troops if the line is 3000 men long.) Flanks cannot be turned in battles in which the defenders have fortifications protecting them in all directions. If a unit not in a fort fails its morale check it may retreat up to 4 tactical squares, or may rout to an adjacent strategic square; units in forts that fail morale checks will not move. Units that retreat incur 2 fatigue points; units that rout incur 5 fatigue points. If a unit fails a morale check and is unable to retreat or rout, it shatters. Units that rout will pick a direction randomly, and may pick a direction that is blocked even if open directions were available. Units that retreat will pick an open direction if one is available. If a retreating or routing unit has its movement blocked, it will surrender. River batteries do not retreat or rout; if required to rout, they are destroyed. Units that rout or retreat will cancel any engage orders they may have. [ More Details ]
10.9. In the melee segment, if it occurs, all units in the front line engage at full strength, units in the second line engage at +10% strength (+20% for artillery brigades) and all units in the rear line engage at half strength. Units that engage incur 1 fatigue point. Units with exposed flanks suffer a penalty. Units in attack or defense mode will switch to skirmish mode (to reduce casualties) if the odds in the melee phase are at least 2:1 against them. Units in assault or last-ditch defense mode will not do so. The casualties that a side inflicts on its opponent are proportional to the effective strength of the units and are distributed among the enemy units in the combat in proportion to their strengths. Units in forts will received reduced casualties. The side that loses the melee suffers increased casualties.
10.10 After the melee if it occurs, or after the firing phase if not, the side that loses the battle falls back to an adjacent tactical square. Naval batteries do not fall back, but are destroyed. Units falling back will move to a tactical square containing same-side or actively allied units when possible. Units falling back receive 1 point of fatigue. They cannot fall back to an impassible square or to one containing enemy units. If no legal fallback direction is available, they will shatter. [ More Details ]
10.11. Units on the attacking side may capture artillery batteries from units on the losing side. If an IN or CV unit which already has a battery captures a second one, it may keep the second battery but cannot use it in combat. It may, however, transfer the captured battery to an IN/CV unit which does not have one. (It should also be allowed to transfer it to an artillery unit - IN to LA and CV to HA - but at the moment this is done by requested a hand edit from the GA). The capturing unit will be one that took part in the battle, unless no unit able to take the battery (LA are taken by IN and LA, HA are taken by CV and LA) took part, in which case it will be given by the closest unit that can within 5 tac squares. If only a unit that cannot take the battery is available to capture it, then it will be captured (and will effectively change types). If the capturing unit already has guns, then the captured gun will be of the same type (smoothbore or rifled) as its existing guns, even if it was not that type originally, except that if a smoothbore-armed unit captures rifled guns, then all its guns will be set to rifled.
10.12. Units that suffer losses in the melee segment must take morale checks under the same rules as units that take losses in the firing segment, and rout or retreat similarly.
10.13. At the end of each phase, if a sufficiently large number of units in a strategic square have routed or retreated, all other units of the same side must take morale checks. If they fail, they join the retreat or rout, or surrender if their retreats or routs are blocked by enemy units or impassible terrain. (Note: Not yet implemented and probably never will be.)
10.14. Casualties suffered in combat are dividing into four types; killed, wounded, prisoners, and stragglers. A fraction of a unit's stragglers will rejoin the unit on each successive turn, and will rejoin faster if the unit has no strategic movement order. Wounded rejoin the unit at the end of the campaign and are available for subsequent campaigns.
10.15.  Artillery units, and infantry and cavalry units with attached artillery batteries, that are not engaged in combat and did not move in a given tac phase may bombard enemy units in adjacent squares in that same tac phase. Units that are engaged in combat in a tac phase do not bombard in that tac phase, but will do so later if they can. Rifled artillery of type LA or SA (including batteries attached to infantry brigades, but not HA or NB or batteries attached to cavalry units) may bombard into a tac square two squares away, and may bombard over the heads of friendly units. Bombarding artillery units may move in earlier or later tac phases. Bombardment takes place after movement and before other combat. Units that bombard may not fire into tactical squares containing same-side or actively allied units. Units bombarding receive a +50% modifier to their strength. Bombardment produces casualties for the bombarded units in exactly the same way as other combat does. (WHAT FOLLOWS IS GOING TO CHANGE) Bombardment can also reduce the level of a fort. The chance of this is 1% for every 350 modified strength bombarding.  Light artillery (including artillery of infantry brigades) cannot damage forts above level 2; horse artillery (including artillery of cavalry brigades) cannot damage forts above level 1. Warships in river and harbor strategic squares can also bombard land targets. See WISC rule 7.7 for details.

11. Communications and Supply

11.1. During campaign turns, units in ROTD are either in communications or not in communications. Army headquarters units are a source of communications and are in communications at all times. Corps headquarters units are in communications if they are have a line of contact to an army headquarters unit and are not more than 5 strategic squares away from it, or if in the same strategic square as a same-side-controlled or active-ally-controlled city. Other brigades are in communications if they have a line of contact to a corps headquarters unit that is in communications and not more than 2 squares away from the unit , or if they are in the same strategic square as a same-side-controlled or active-ally-controlled city.
11.2.  Two units have a line of contact if there is a path between them (not including the strategic squares in which they are located) along the strategic map that does not enter impassible terrain, does not cross an unfordable or unbridgeable river except at a bridge (a ferry is not sufficient), does not enter a square containing an enemy unit, does not enter a square adjacent to an enemy cavalry unit unless a same-side or actively allied combat unit is also in the square or in the square of the enemy cavalry unit, and does not pass diagonally between enemy units, does not cross an unfordable and unbridged river, and, if there are enemy units in their strategic squares, both units have a clear path to the edge of their tactical maps (see rule 7.7 above) in the direction of that path. Lines of contact for purpose of detecting enemy cavalry units (but not non-cavalry units) may be traced through squares adjacent to enemy cavalry. [More Details]  Units are in contact with cities and supply depots/caches if they would be in contact with an unit in the city/depot/cache tactical square, unless the city is under siege (see next rule). Two cities/depots/caches have a line of contact to one another if they are controlled by the same side or allied sides, and units of the controlling side in each of their tactical squares would have a line of contact between them.
11.3. Cities may be besieged. A city is besieged if the unmodified strength of hostile units in tactical squares adjacent to the city is more than 150% of the unmodified strength of same-side or actively allied units in the city tactical square or adjacent tactical squares, and if there is a fort in the city, hostile unmodified strength is at least half the capacity of the fort. Supplies may not be moved in or out of besieged cities. Units in besieged cities may draw supply and communications only from the city or from a Q unit in the city; units outside a besieged city may not draw supplies or communications from the city or from a Q unit inside the city. A siege can only begin at the end of a movement phase. Thus, if a city is not besieged at the start of a movement phase, it will not become besieged until the end of that phase. At the end of a turn, in the siege surrender phase, units in besieged cities which have no supplies may surrender. The chance that the units will surrender is 1/3. One roll is made for the whole garrison, so either all units in the city will surrender or none will. Non-city tac squares cannot be besieged, even if they contain depots (this rule may be revised in future).
11.4. Units not in communications lose one square from their strategic movement allowance.
11.5.  Supplies can be stored on the map in supply depots or supply caches. Supply depots and caches are purchased and placed by the Treasury Secretaries of each side, or the President or Vice-President of that side. Supply depots and caches may be placed in strategic squares containing friendly-controlled railroad, friendly-controlled navigable river, or a friendly-controlled city, or in strategic squares that have open or river terrain and are within 4 squares of a friendly city or supply depot (but not a supply cache). If a supply depot is in a railroad square it must be in a railroad tactical square; if in a river square it must be in a tactical square adjacent to the river; if in a city square they must be in the city tac square; if the city contains more than one of those things, then the tac square appropriate to any of them may be chosen. Supply caches may be placed in any passable tactical square. If a depot or cache is not on a rail or river, nor in a friendly city, then movements of supplies into or out of that depot are limited to 10 supplies per turn, and such movements cannot pass through mountain terrain squares. These limit do not apply to CQs drawing supply out of the depot/cache, only to movements between depots/caches or between a depot/cache and a city. Supply depots and caches can be removed if not needed; the Secretary of War, or the President or Vice-President, may send orders to remove a side's depots and caches.
11.6. During campaign turns, active units in ROTD, except naval batteries, consume supplies. Naval batteries and inactive units do not use supplies. Supplies are stored in supply depots, caches, and in cities, and distributed via corps headquarters to units. A corps headquarters can draw supplies from a same-side supply depot if the depot is not more than 4 strategic squares away, and it has a line of contact to the depot (as defined in rule 11.2). It can also draw supplies from a same-side supply cache or city if it is located in the cache/city strat square (if the city is besieged, it must be in the city tac square). A unit, including an army headquarters, can draw supplies from a same-side or actively allied corps headquarters if the corps headquarters is not more than 2 squares away and the unit has a line of contact to the corps headquarters not longer than 2 strategic squares. Units can also draw directly from cities or supply depots/caches if they are in the same strategic square as the city or depot/cache. One corps HQ can supply a maximum of 18 units, including itself. A city, depot, or cache can supply as many units as wish to draw supply from them. A unit can also requisition supplies if it is in a strategic square with open or river terrain, there are no enemy brigades in the same strategic square, and there are no more than 3 total brigades in the square. A unit can enter "None" for its supply source if it does not wish to draw supplies; it will still requisition supplies if it can. If a CQ does not wish to draw supplies, it can enter "None" for its supply source. It then will not draw supplies from a city or a depot/cache, but will still give the supplies it carries (if any) to units that request supplies from it.
11.7 Any commander of an army headquarters unit, or the Secretary of War, can order supplies moved from one city or supply depot or cache to another, if the cities/depots/caches have a line of contact to the depot not longer than 4 strategic squares. Supplies can also be moved by river and rail if the cities or depots or caches have a valid rail or river path between them and are within 40 squares for a rail move or 30 squares for a river move. Supplies may also be moved from one city to another, or a depot or cache in a city strategic square, if both cities are ocean port cities, are connected via a coastal waters to the same sea area or adjacent sea areas, there are no hostile ships in either port, and in the connected sea area(s), there are not more enemy warships raiding commerce than there are friendly warships convoying commerce. It is not necessary to supply the method of transport or the path - only the origin and destination need be specified, and any valid path that exists will be used. State bloc governors and Congressmen may order supplies moved from cities (but not depots and caches) in their state bloc. Supplies may be moved only from the city or depot/cache in which they began the turn (ie, supplies cannot make two consecutive moves on one turn) and no city or depot/cache may originate movement of more than 60 units of supply per turn. A depot or cache not located in a river or rail square, or in a friendly city, can originate movement of only 10 supplies per turn, and its movements cannot go through mountain strategic terrain. During pregame setup turns, the distance limits and the quantity limit do not apply; any number of supplies that started the turn in the city/depot/cache can be moved any distance.
11.8.  If an enemy unit enters the tactical square of an undefended depot or cache, or if enemy units win a battle in the tactical square of a depot/cache, the depot/cache is destroyed. All units of the destroying side will automatically load ammunition and supplies from the depot/cache, up to the limit of the number of supplies in the depot/cache when destroyed. Corps headquarters have first priority to load supplies, other units second; within groups the order of loading supplies is random.
11.9. At the start of each turn, units consume 1 unit of supplies, then draw more supplies if they desire. Units, including corps headquarters, will consume a supply they are currently carrying if they can, and otherwise will consume one from their supply source if one is available. Units using a corps headquarters for a supply source will consume from the corps headquarters' supply source if it has one, otherwise will draw from the stores carried by the corps headquarters. When drawing supplies to carry during the turn, corps headquarters units can carry up to 12 units of supplies; other units can carry 0 or 1 unit of supplies. Commanders indicate the desired level of supply they wish to carry in the supply level box on the orders page, and the unit, if it has a supply source, will draw or unload enough supplies to bring itself up to, or down to, that level. except that if an enemy unit is present, or it is out of supply, it cannot unload. Units with a corps headquarters for a supply source will draw from the corps headquarters' supply source if it has one, from the corps headquarters' carried stores if not. A unit that indicates a supply level of 0 will still draw supplies for immediate consumption if it can do so. If the supply level box is left blank, the unit will neither draw nor unload supplies, but will keep the amount it had at the end of consumption. Supplies are drawn before supply movements and purchases occur, so a unit can only draw supplies from a city if those supplies were present in the city at the end of the preceding turn.
11.10.  During campaign turns, units that do not have supplies to consume suffer losses from desertion each turn that they lack supplies, unless in a besieged city. Units that requisition supplies suffer reduced losses from desertion during requisitioning. The number of men lost depend on the quality and morale of the unit. [More Details] Supply losses are divided between prisoners and stragglers, and will rejoin their units under rule 10.13.  Units in besieged cities do not lose deserters, but there is a 33% chance that they may surrender if there are no supplies in the city. If one unit in the fort surrenders, then all will do so.
11.11. Infantry and artillery units in ROTD also consume ammunition in combat. Units can carry five units of ammunition, and expend one unit of ammunition in any tactical phase that they fire or engage in melee. Units automatically replenish ammunition whenever they draw supplies.
11.12. Infantry units that are out of ammunition cannot fire, and fight in melee at half strength. Artillery units that are out of ammunition cannot fire or engage in melee.
11.13. At the end of each turn, units locate the nearest available source of supply; corps HQs locate the nearest city, other units locate the nearest corps HQ. This supply location is listed on the unit's status report. [More Details] Unit commanders may specify a different supply source on the campaign orders submission form if they wish to do so; if not, or if the ordered supply source is not valid, the unit will use the one listed on its status report. If a city changes hands or a CQ is disbanded, then the unit may select a different supply source at the start of the following turn.

12. Bridges and Ferries

12.1.  Units that wish to cross unfordable rivers may do so by crossing at bridges. There are two types of bridges in ROTD: railroad bridges and pontoon bridges.
12.2.  Railroad bridges automatically appear in any square where railroad track crosses a river. A square containing a railroad bridge is used in the same way that a ford is used in tactical movement; the unit wishing to cross the river specifies the square containing the railroad bridge as a waypoint, or if it wishes to end its move in the tactical square of the bridge, as the destination.
12.3.  Railroad bridges may be destroyed by destroying the railroad track in the strategic square (see rule 8.5) and may be rebuilt, if destroyed, by rebuilding the track. New railroad bridges may not be added to the map. Ships may also destroy railroad bridges (and the track in the square thereby) if they spend one turn in the strategic square of the bridge without moving or fighting.
12.4.  Pontoon bridges are units and move about the map in the same way that units do. They can be deployed into tactical squares that are friendly-controlled, bridgeable rivers using the pontoon bridge deployment/removal order form. They must be deployed into a river tactical square. No enemy warship can be present in the strategic square. If enemy units are present, the pontoon bridge unit must be in an adjacent tactical square; when enemy units are not present, it can be anywhere in the strategic square. Pontoon bridges take one tactical phase to deploy. When deployed, they are placed into the river tactical square and can be used to allow units to cross the river in the same way that fords do; the unit wishing to cross the river specifies the tactical square containing the pontoon bridge as a waypoint, or if it wishes to end its move in the tactical square of the bridge, as the destination. One pontoon bridge cannot cross another pontoon bridge; to get a pontoon bridge across a river, either deploy it and undeploy it to the far side, or cross at a ford or railroad bridge, or use a ferry.
12.5.  Pontoon bridges can be removed from deployment. When removed, they move to a tactical square on dry land adjacent to the square in which they were deployed (it can be on either side of the river). Once removed, they can move about the map normally but do not allow crossing of rivers until redeployed.
12.6.  Pontoon bridges can take part in land combat. Undeployed pontoon bridges take part in combats normally, and may be destroyed in those combats. If a combat occurs in a tactical square containing a deployed pontoon bridge, and the pontoon bridge's side loses the combat, the pontoon bridge is captured. If a naval combat occurs in the strategic square containing the bridge, and the pontoon bridge's side loses the combat, the pontoon bridge is destroyed (ships cannot capture them). If there are only enemy warships in the square, then the pontoon bridge may be destroyed immediately by requesting that the GA remove it.
12.7.  Units can also cross a river using an RT as a ferry. (TRs should be able to do it too; check with the GA to make sure the code supports this.) To do this, use the ID of the ferry as a waypoint for the move. The unit may not stop its movement on the ferry; the unit must have a destination square that is not a river tac square. Do NOT use the tac square the ferry is in as the waypoint. That doesn't work. One RT can ferry units in this way only as long as the total size of the units that have been ferried on one turn is less than the capacity of the ferry, minus the space taken by any unit it is carrying, times 4. For example, an RT with a capacity of 3000 and a 1000/0 IN aboard, which has 2000 spaces free, can allow two IN with strength 2400 and one battery (total space 2600x2=5200), an LA with 4 batteries (space=800) and a cavalry unit with strength 600 (space=1800) to cross, because the total capacity used is 5200+800+1800 = 7800, less than 2000x4 = 8000. The RT cannot move during the turn. If there is a naval combat in the strategic square, the RT can continue to ferry units across the river as long as its side wins the naval combat. If its side loses, it will be forced to retreat and this will prevent the ferrying from taking place.

13. Inactive Units

13.1. During campaign turns, units in ROTD can be inactive in three situations. 1) Units aboard transports become inactive until they unload into a ROTD map square. 2) Units located in garrisons of (naval modle to be named) ports which are not on the ROTD map (there will be a few, probably) are inactive. 3) Units on the ROTD map can be inactivated by the commander or by the Secretary of War.
13.2. A single square on the ROTD strategic map cannot contain more than three inactive units (including militia) if it contains a city, and not more than two inactive units if it does not contain a city. Attempts to inactivate units when the maximum number of inactive units are already present will fail. Units may not inactivate when neutral or enemy units are in their strategic square.
13.3. Inactive units do not require communications or supply and do not take supply losses. They do not move or detect enemy units. They will, however, automatically activate if enemy or neutral units enter their strategic square. Inactive units appear on report maps with a tent icon instead of a flag icon. They do not provide intelligence information. They are listed at the end of the position report.
13.4. Inactive units on transports or on the ROTD map do not engage in combat. Inactive units in port garrisons will fight if enemy units land at the port. The normal combat rules do not apply to fights in garrisons, because those battles do not take place on the ROTD map. Rules for these combats are found in the PATE rules, rule 10.2. as are other relevant rules for units on transports and in garrisons.
13.5. Players may send orders for inactive units. These orders will not cause the unit to activate. However, if the unit is activated during the turn for some reason (for example, if an enemy unit enters its strategic square) then the unit will begin carrying out the orders it has received at that time. Note that if an inactive unit is ordered to move in strat phase 1, but is not activated until strat phase 2, then it will not attempt to carry out its strat phase 1 order, as that phase has passed. 

14. Shattered Units

14.1.If a unit is required to retreat or rout, but its attempt to do so is blocked by an enemy or neutral unit, or if it takes a morale check when its fatigue is 16 or greater, then the unit will shatter. Units that shatter lose 20% to 60% of their strength, on average about half as stragglers and about half as prisoners.
14.2. Upon shattering, a unit will immediately move to a strategic square with no enemy units and commence reforming. If the unit is drawing supply from a CQ and the CQ has a depot, cache, or city as supply source, then if the unit has a line of contact to the city or depot, it will move 3 or 4 squares along that line. Otherwise, if the unit has a valid line of contact to a friendly-controlled city within 15 squares, it will move 3 or 4 squares along that line. If that square contains an enemy unit, the shattered unit will instead locate in an adjacent square, selected randomly, until it finds one with no enemy unit present. If the unit has no line of contact to any same-side or actively allied city, then it is destroyed.
14.3. Shattered units take 2 or 3 turns to reform, including the one on which they are shattered, and reform at the end of the turn on which they complete reforming. While shattered, they do not report intelligence in any way.
14.4. If an enemy unit enters the square where the shattered unit is reforming, then the shattered unit will again move 3 to 4 squares along the line of contact to a same-side or actively allied city (but not a depot - it will be destroyed it if has no city available) and will require an additional turn to reform.
14.5. When the unit is ready to reform, it reappears as an active unit on the map if it has supply and communications, or is in the same strategic square as a supply depot or cache. If it does not meet the conditions, then it attempts to reform on the following turn. If it cannot reform for three turns, it is destroyed.

ROTD rules written and maintained by Stephen Schmidt.