Civil War OnLine

Specie, Loans, and Greenbacks

Rule Book

Last modified December 10, 2018

This document provides a basic overview to the rules of Specie, Loans, and Greenbacks (SLAG), the financial and economic module of the Civil War OnLine (CWOL). A player who has read and understood these rules should be able to serve as Secretary of the Treasury in SLAG.

The basic rules are divided into nine sections:

1. Currency
5. Building, Reinforcing, Disbanding, and Scuttling Units and Ships
2. Revenue, Manufacturing, and National Treasuries
6. Maintenance Costs
3. Loans and Printing Money
7. Buying Supplies, Stores, Depots, and Caches
4. Manpower
8. Fortifications

9. Upgrading Weapons

Worksheet for Treasury Secretaries
MP management worksheet
Complete Financial Sequence

1. Currency

1.1. Money in CWOL is denominated in "eagles", abbreviated Eg. Because the value of the dollar changed dramatically during the war, especially in the Confederacy, it is not possible to give an exact correspondence between eagles and actual Civil War dollars. However, in terms of 1861 gold dollars, one Eagle is equal to (very approximately) $1000 to $5000.
1.2. At the start of the game, all money is in the form of gold (specie, or gold-backed certificates). As the game goes along, each nation may authorize greenbacks (fiat money backed only by the reputation of the issuing nation). The greenbacks will be worth less than gold. The more greenbacks are authorized, and the more debt the nation has taken on, the lower the value of its greenbacks will be. Also, the value of its greenbacks will fall along with its national morale (due to lack of faith in their redemption). The value of greenbacks relative to gold will be stated by the number of greenback eagles required to buy 100 gold eagles; for example, a value of 180 means 180 greenback eagles is equal to 100 gold eagles.
1.3.  Nations will be able to use gold to repurchase their greenbacks, but will not be able to use greenbacks to purchase gold. Repurchases are done at the prevailing exchange rate. Contact the GA to conduct a repurchase.

2. Revenue, Manufacturing, and National Treasuries

2.1. Each nation has a treasury. It receives revenue into the treasury for each city and port that it holds, based on the tax rates it has set. Some of this revenue will be in gold, while other revenue will be in greenbacks (paper money) if those are in circulation. It pays expenditures from the treasury for each unit and ship it possesses; interest payments on debt must be in gold, all other payments are made in greenbacks if they are authorized and sufficient greenbacks are available, otherwise they are paid in gold. Congress authorizes tax rates. The Secretary of the Treasury, or the President or Vice-President acting on his behalf, can spend the revenues. (Congress should allocate them between war, navy, and treasury budgets, but this rule is not yet in force.)
2.2.  There are two kinds of taxes; income taxes and
tariffs (import taxes). Tariffs are collected only at ocean port cities and certain river port cities (generally, the lowest one on each river; the PATE ports list shows which port cities produce tariff revenue). Income tax rates can be set to any integer value between 0 and 20. Tariffs can be set to any integer value between 0 and 20 in the Union, and between 0 and 10 in the Confederacy. At the start of the game, income tax rates are set to 0, and tariffs are set to 10 in the Union and 5 in the Confederacy. Tariff revenues are always received in gold; income tax revenues are received in greenbacks if those are in circulation, and in gold if not.
2.3. 
If there are no blockades or embargoes, then each city that is controlled by its own nation produces income equal to 25 Eg times the level of the city on each campaign turn. Off-map ports do not generate income. Cities controlled by a nation which is not their home nation produce only one-quarter of their usual level of income.
2.4.  The revenues raised by taxes is as follows. The income tax raises revenue in each city equal to the city's income times the income tax rate divided by 100. The tariff raises income in each ocean port city, and each river port city which generate tariffs (usually the lowest port on its river and within 12 squares of the river mouth, plus Philadelphia PA and Norfolk VA), equal to the city's income times the tariff rate divided by 100. Example: Boston MA is a level 8 ocean port. It generates a total income of 8x25 = 200. If the Union income tax rate is 5 and the Union tariff rate is 10, then Boston generates (200*5/100) = 10 Eg in income tax revenue, and (200*10/100) = 20 Eg in tariff revenue. If the tax and tariff rates are raised to 15, then it generates 30 Eg in income tax revenue and 30 Eg in tariff revenue. Example: Nashville TN is a level 3 city that is not a tariff-generating port. It produces a total income of 3*25 = 75. If the Confederate tax rate is 12, then it produces (75*12/100) = 9 Eg in income tax revenue. If captured by the Union it would produce only one-fourth of this total income. The tax revenue could be different by more or less than that, because the Union tax rate rather than the Confederate one would be used in the calculation.
2.5.  The morale effect of taxes is as follows: Income taxes reduce morale according to a formula to be worked out. Tariffs will reduce morale by less than that since much of the incidence of the tariff is borne overseas, not at home.
See CWOL rule section 3 which is only slightly more helpful. More details will emerge eventually.
2.6. A city's income is reduced by 5% for each hostile brigade within 4 squares of the city that has a line of contact (see ROTD rule 11.2) to the city, up to four brigades, for a maximum total reduction of 20%.
2.7. If a nation declares a blockade of the other nation, the incomes of the blockaded ports will be reduced. An ocean port is blockaded if the other nation has declared a blockade against the nation controlling that port, and there are ships of the blockading power in the coastal waters to which that port is attached which are ignoring commerce.  A river port is blockaded if 
there are ships of the blockading power in the coastal waters to which the river mouth it attached, or if the blockading power controls a square of the river between the port and the mouth. The fraction of income lost depends on the percentage of the nation's ports that are blockaded. If only one port is blockaded, the trade loss is very small, but increases as more ports are blockaded, until if all of a nation's ports are blockaded, half the income of those ports is lost.
2.8.  If the Confederacy passes a cotton embargo, the incomes of Confederate ports (ocean and river) will be directly reduced by the embargo, by an amount to be determined, but not more than about 10% or 20%.
2.9. A nation can raid the shipping of the other nation by ordering its warships to raid enemy shipping, or by engaging privateers. The enemy state can order its own warships to protect its commerce to defend it against raiding. Raiding reduces the income of port cities of the enemy nation. The loss of income from raiding is calculated separately for each port city. The total strength of raiders off a given port is (THIS NEEDS REVISION) 3 points for each hostile raiding wooden ship in the coastal waters, 1 point for each hostile raiding ironclad in the associated sea area, 9 points for each hostile raiding ship in the port, and 3 points for each hostile raiding ship in the sea area. Total protecting strength is the same scale for friendly ships. The income of the port city is reduced by a fraction that depends on both total raiding strength and total protecting strength; it rises as raiding strength increases and falls as protecting strength increases.
2.10.  Each city in the game is also rated for manufacturing capacity. Each side receives 6 MPs for each level of each city it controls. Some items a nation can purchase (e.g., ironclad warships) require the use of this manufacturing capacity, and the nation cannot purchase more goods than its manufacturing limit permits. It will also be possible to purchase manufactured goods from European powers, if international opinion is suitable, at a price of 2 Eg gold per foreign MP. If a blockade is in effect, some of these purchases will be lost to the blockade.

3. Loans and Printing Money

3.1.  Each nation has the ability to borrow money to pay war expenses. Nations that borrow money must pay interest on the balance every turn. Interest rates are 6% per annum which means 0.25% per turn (12 turns per campaign, 2 campaigns per "year"). They do not compound - interest paid is 0.25% of the amount borrowed each turn. Loans do not have to be repaid during the game - they are taken for long terms (5  years or more) and do not come due for repayment until the war is over. Loans are paid into the Treasury of the borrowing nation - in greenbacks if the nation has authorized greenbacks, and in gold if not. (Note: the effect of receiving loans in greenbacks is that a nation with a high inflation rate receives a lower real value when it borrows money. This is effectively equivalent to charging a higher interest rate when a nation's paper currency is worth less - but much simpler.)
3.2.  Interest payments must be made in gold, and will be automatically made before any other Treasury expenditures are made. Thus all gold will go to pay interest before being available for any other purpose. If a nation runs out of gold, it will have to repay with greenbacks converted to gold at the standing rate. If the nation lacks enough greenbacks to pay, it will be forced to print money to cover the interest payments, which will reduce the value of its greenback still further. Default on the debt is not permitted.
3.3.  If a nation wishes to spend more money than it has available through tax revenues and loans, it may issue greenbacks, once Congress has approved doing so. The value of the greenbacks will initially be equal to the value of gold, but will decline as the nation adds more greenbacks to the money in circulation. Falling value of greenbacks is very bad for national morale; details to follow. Nations that get into financial trouble may suffer an inflationary spiral, as the Confederacy really did; printing greenbacks to pay expenses will cause inflation which will require the nation to print even more greenbacks.
3.4.  The Confederacy will eventually have the option to issue a cotton-backed loan. This loan will be received in gold, not greenbacks, because it is backed by a real asset rather than by the full faith and credit of the government. The amount available will depend on international opinion. The loan will only be available once the Confederacy has authorized it, which will reduce national morale (because of the implication that the Confederacy will have to tax cotton to back the loan). However, this option is not available in CWOL-9.
3.5.  All expenditures other than interest payments are paid using greenbacks if they have been authorized and are available in the Treasury, and are paid in gold otherwise.

4. Manpower

4.1. Each state has a certain amount of manpower available for regular military service for either side. This amount of manpower is divided into nine pools.  Eight of those pools are white volunteer, white bounty, white draft, and and white militia, one for each of the two sides; the other is USCT manpower which is only available to the Union. Northern states have no Confederate manpower, but border and Southern states have both. [More Details] White volunteer manpower and white militia manpower can be raised at any time; white bounty, white draft, and USCT can only be raised after Congress has authorized bounty payments, drafts, or enrollment of black troops. The latter may be done only by the Union Congress, not the Confederate Congress. The older manpower pool can only be used to form militia regiments unless Congress has authorized the draft.
4.2.  Regiments, which can later be formed into land units, are raised from the manpower of each state by the governor of the bloc containing that state. Infantry regiments require 600 men to raise; cavalry regiments require 300 men to raise; artillery batteries require 100 men to raise; militia regiments require 500 men to raise.
See rule 5.1 and 5.2 for more details. Headquarters and pontoon bridges, which do not contain regiments, take manpower when they are built, from the manpower of the state in which the ship is built. Any type of manpower that has been authorized, except for USCT manpower, may be used to build headquarters and pontoon boats.
4.3.  There is a cost to form regiments out of the bounty pool: 30 per infantry regiment, 25 per militia regiment, 15 per cavalry regiment, and 5 per battery for artillery batteries. If a non-militia unit is formed out of the older manpower pool, its quality will be reduced by 2 or 3 levels. The older manpower pool cannot be used to raise headquarters units or pontoon bridges, or crew for ships.
4.4.  The state of Kentucky begins the game neutral. Kentucky manpower that is available must be used to raise regiments and batteries only in Kentucky cities, and regiments and batteries of other states may not be raised in Kentucky cities. Regiments in Kentucky may be formed into brigades by the Secretaries of War of both sides. Entrenchments can be built in Kentucky but naval batteries may not. Kentucky remains neutral until its neutrality is violated by 1) a non-Kentucky brigade of one side or another entering the state, 2) a Kentucky brigade of one side or the other exiting the state, 3) a Kentucky unit or ship attacking a unit of the other side (Kentucky or not), 4) a non-Kentucky unit attacking a Kentucky unit of the other side, or 5) a Kentucky unit capturing a town of the other side. Sailing ships across the state border, in either direction, on rivers entirely within Kentucky (the Tennessee and the Cumberland) also constitutes a violation of neutrality. Sailing ships along rivers on Kentucky borders (the Ohio and Mississippi) does not constitute a violation of neutrality. Once this happens, all Kentucky neutrality limits are removed, and Kentucky manpower becomes fully available. If one side violates Kentucky neutrality before the other, then the side that violates Kentucky neutrality loses 30% of its starting white manpower in the state and the other side gains 20% of its starting white manpower. USCT manpower is not affected. Also, Kentucky regiments of the violating side in the field lose 15% of their strength to desertion. (This clause is not being enforced for CWOL9). Also, the side that did not violate Kentucky neutrality gains 30 national morale points. If both sides violate Kentucky neutrality on the same turn, then there is no change in manpower or national morale.

4.5.  Ships are raised by the Secretary of the Navy, and the manpower is taken from the manpower of the state in which the ship is built. Any type of manpower that has been authorized, including USCT manpower for the Union Navy, may be used to crew ships.
4.6. 
Each port has a certain transport capacity available, reflecting the amount of civilian shipping in the port that can be chartered for military service. Raising a transport requires capacity from that pool. The TR/RT capacity available is equal to 500 times the yard capacity of each port in ocean ports, and 1000 times in river ports. TR and RTs cannot be raised larger than the capacity available in any one port, but can be combined into larger TRs and RTs once raised and brought together.
4.7.
 
The capture of cities does not affect manpower availability; the manpower of a state remains available to its side as long as there is a city in which regiments of the state can be raised (see rule 5.1).

5. Building, Reinforcing, Disbanding, and Scuttling Units and Ships

5.1.  Regiments and batteries are raised by state bloc governors. The city providing the manpower must be aligned with the nation raising the regiment/battery; that is, the Union can raise Kentucky regiments using manpower provided by Louisville but the Confederacy cannot, while the Confederacy can raise Kentucky regiments using manpower provided by Paducah but the Union cannot. They can be raised in any city which has a railroad or river link suitable for moving supplies to a city in the state providing the manpower (maximum lengths of the links are 80 and 60 squares respectively), or which is within 8 squares of a city in the state providing the manpower. (This allows, for instance, Confederate Maryland regiments to be raised in northern Virginia even if the Union controls all Maryland cities, but not in Georgia, unless the CSA has a rail link between a Maryland city and a Georgia city.) The time required for the regiments to be built is equal to 1 turn for militia regiments, 3 turns for infantry regiments and 4 turns for artillery batteries and cavalry regiments except 6 turns for siege artillery batteries, plus the time required to reach the city where the regiment is being raised by rail or river along the shortest link (40 squares per turn for rail, 30 per turn for river) or 0 turns if the unit is being built in the city providing the manpower. (Note - transit time is not currently being added - hope to add this before CWOL 10). Militia regiments can only be raised in their home state. Once raised, regiments wait to be formed into brigades by the national government. If the city where they are located is captured by the enemy, they are lost and the manpower is returned to the state's manpower reserve.
5.2.  The Secretary of the Treasury, or President or Vice-President acting on his behalf, can purchase units and ships, except for militia units, which must be purchased by the governor of the state bloc in whose state they are being raised (or the Congressman acting on his behalf). The Secretary of War and Secretary of the Navy cannot order purchases of units or ships. Land units, except NB units, PB units, and Q units, can be built only in cities where regiments already exist to be formed into brigades. PB and Q units can be built in any city. Ships can only be raised in ports with sufficient dockyard space. Except for NB units, units that are formed out of regiments and batteries (IN, CV, LA, HA, SA, MI) can be formed in a single turn once the regiments are available. NB units require three turns to build after the batteries are available. They are not built in cities, but can be built in any square with a port city or navigable river with a line of contact to the city where the batteries are located - up to 4 squares long if by land, 20 squares long if by river, or 30 squares long if by rail. There must be a line of contact between the city with the batteries and the square where the NB is to be built on the turn that the order is placed, and at the end of the turn when the build is completed. Between those two times, the line of contact does not need to exist, but if an enemy unit enters the strategic square in which the build is taking place, the build will be delayed by one turn. On the pregame build turn, RI, RG, TR, RT, and IC may not be build; only GB, SL, and FR can be. The time required to build other units and ships during campaign turns are:

Type
Turns to build
NB
3
PB
2
CQ 6
AQ 8
TR, RT
2
RG
6
GB
8
SL, RI
12
IC, FR
16

Table of build costs

Average quality of units and ships

5.3. Regiments can only be built in cities controlled by the building side, though the city providing the manpower need not be controlled by the building power. Units can only be built in cities controlled by the side building them. Exception: Militia regiments and units may be built in a city which is loyal to the side but controlled by the enemy if the city is ungarrisoned or insufficiently garrisoned. Only one order to raise militia in a given hostile city may be sent per turn. If more than one order is sent, the last one sent will be used. Only one attempt to raise militia in a hostile city may be made in a given city in each campaign. The cost of the raise is paid whether the raise is successful or not. [More Details]
5.4. 
Ships must be built in on-map ports controlled by the state building them, but do not need to be loyal to that nation. Example: The Union may build ships in New Orleans if they have captured it. Exception: If diplomatic conditions are correct, nations may build ships in neutral ports in Britain or France. Details to follow. The Confederacy may not build IC, FR, or SL in American ports. Those types must be bought in Europe (or be in the start-of-game navy).
5.5. A nation cannot buy a ship or unit unless the nation has sufficient funds to build it and to maintain it for 15 turns. (This is to prevent players from buying more armed forces than they can support.) The funding limit is applied to each order as construction begins; it does not apply to all pending builds cumulatively. Thus, an order for two four-regiment IN requires the state to have 780 Eg on hand to start construction (each unit requires 120 build costs plus 270 for 15 turns maintenance, which is 390 each) but if two such orders are submitted, each requires 780 Eg on hand; they do not require 1560 Eg on hand to build both. (THESE NUMBERS WILL BE FIXED LATER.)
5.6.  A state cannot start a new regiment build in a city that is under siege, but if a city comes under siege during the build time, the build is not cancelled. Regiments may be formed into brigades in cities under siege, except that NB units may not be formed unless the NB is being built in the city tactical square. However, if a unit build causes the number of units to exceed the limit of 12 allied units in one tac square, the units will be built outside the city tac square. (Note: this may later be changed so that the builds are cancelled if the 12-unit limit is exceeded.)
5.7.  The number of units that may be built in one city at one time depends on the level of the city. For level 1 cities, the limit is 6, for level 2 cities it is 8, level 3 it is 10, level 4 it is 12, level 5 it is 14. (These numbers may change.) Militia builds are included in these limits. These limits do not apply on pre-game starting force build turns
5.8.  The number of dockyards in a port limits the number of ships (but not transport groups) that can be built and repaired there. The number being built there, plus the number being repaired there, may not exceed the number of dockyards available at that port. Transport group builds are exempt from this limit. These limits do not apply on pre-game starting force build turns.
5.9. Infantry units when built must contain at least three and not more than five regiments, and up to one battery. Cavalry units when built must contain at least three and not more than five regiments, and up to one battery. Artillery units when built must contain at least three batteries, and no more than four batteries. Militia units when built must contain at least one and not more than three regiments, and cannot contain batteries. This implies that their strengths will be between 1800 and 3100 for infantry, 900 and 1600 for cavalry, 500 and 1500 for militia. Army and corps HQs contain 250 and 100 men respectively, and no batteries. Crew of ships are limited to 200 aboard ICs, RIs, and SLs, 350 aboard FRs, and 150 aboard GBs and RGs. There is no limit to crew on TRs and RTs except the capacity of the TR/RT. Newly built units will have 1 supply; newly built ships will have maximum stores aboard (24 for FR and TR, 12 for SL, 8 for IC or GB, 6 for RI, RG, and RT).
5.10.  If a city or port is captured, all pending builds in that city or port will be cancelled, and all regiments in that city will be lost. If a warship ends a turn in the harbor of a hostile port with no defending coastal batteries nor warships hostile to the given warship present in the harbor, then that warship may cancel pending naval builds in that port.
5.11.
Regiments and batteries may be transferred between two units. The units must be of the same type; that is, IN may not be transferred to CV, HA may not be transferred to LA, and similarly. CQ and AQ units may not transfer men at all. Exception: batteries may be transferred between IN and LA, and between CV and HA, though this is presently a GA hand edit. When a regiment is transferred, the number of men transferred will be proportional to the number of regiments in the unit, minus 100 men for each battery attached. When a battery is transferred, 100 men will be transferred along with the guns. The two units must be of the same nation (duh). Regiments may be transferred between active units, between inactive units, or between an active and an inactive unit. Each side's Secretary of War, President, and Vice-President are authorized to transfer regiments and batteries between that side's units. The CO or XO of the unit that is giving up the regiments or batteries may also submit a transfer order for his unit. Units must be in the same strategic square to transfer; if hostile units are present in the same strategic square, then they must be in the same tactical square. Both units must remain within the unit strength limits (1800 to 3100 for IN, 900 to 1600 for CV, 300 to 400 for artillery, 500 to 1500 for militia). Exception: It is permitted to transfer all the regiments and batteries of a unit to other units, eliminating the donor unit. This is a GA hand edit; email the GAs to arrange for this to happen. When a unit receives men by transfer, the unit's new ammunition, experience, fatigue, morale, quality, and supplies carried are determined by the average of the unit's pre-transfer qualities and the donor unit's qualities, weighted by the number of men in each group.
5.12.
  Crew may be transferred between two ships. The ships must be of the same nation but need not be of the same type. Ships must be in the same tactical location to transfer crew; if no hostile ships are present, then one may be in port or a river mouth, and the other in coastal waters. Crew may not be transferred between active ships and inactive ships, nor between inactive ships (the crew is not aboard an inactive ship). Each side's Secretary of the Navy, President, and Vice-President are authorized to transfer men between that side's ships. The CO or XO of the ship that is giving up the crew may also submit a transfer order for his ship. Transfers must conform to the limits on unit strength in rule 5.8. Transfers that do not will be discarded entirely.
5.13.
  
Two units may merge. Merging units must be of the same type; that is, IN may not be merged with CV, HA may not be merged with LA, and similarly. Merging units must be of the same nation (duh). Units must be in the same strategic square to merge; if hostile units are present in the same strategic square, then they must be in the same tactical square. Each side's Secretary of War, President, and Vice-President are authorized to merge that side's units. The CO or XO of the unit that is eliminated may also submit a merge order for his unit. Infantry units may not be raised above 3000 men and one battery, cavalry units may not be raised above 1500 men and one battery, and artillery may not be raised above 400 men and 4 batteries. If a merge order would violate these limits, the order is carried out, and the extra men and/or batteries are lost. The characteristics of the merged unit (experience, fatigue, morale, quality, etc) will be a weighted average of the characteristics of the original units, weighted by strength. If one unit had a supply and the other did not, then the merged unit will have a supply if and only if the larger of the original units had one.
5.13.  Two TR or RT groups may merge. They must be of the same type - RT and TR groups may not merge. The merging groups must be of the same nation, and they must be in the same tactical location - groups in harbors or rivers cannot merge with groups in coastal waters. Each side's Secretary of the Navy, President, and Vice-President are authorized to merge that side's groups. The CO or XO of the group being eliminated can also submit a merge order. If a merger would create a group with more than 20,000 capacity, the merger is rejected altogether. The merged group will have stores and damage equal to an unweighted average of the original groups (rounding down).
5.14.  Nations may use regiments and batteries to reinforce existing units, and may buy new crew for existing ships. The Secretary of War, and the President and Vice-President, can add new regiments and batteries to a state's units, and the Secretary of the Navy, and the President and Vice-President, can add crew to ships. The commander and deputy commander of a unit or ship can also add regiments and batteries to units or crew to ships they command. Regiments and batteries can be added only to units which can trace a line of contact [More Details] not longer than 8 squares, or a rail link not longer than 25 squares, to the city where the regiment/battery is located. Crew can be added to ships if they are located in a home-nation, friendly-controlled on-map port's harbor, or in its coastal waters if no hostile ship is present. Ships may not move on the turn on which they add crew (land units may). A regiment of 600 men for IN or 500 men for MI costs 60 Eg and 5 MP. A regiment of 300 men for CV costs 60 Eg and 5 MP. A battery of 100 men and guns costs 60 Eg and 10 MP for IN or LA, 90 Eg and 15 MP for CV, HA, and NB, and 90 Eg and 20 MP for SA. If an artillery unit wishes to add only men, or only guns, it may do so - this is presently done by GA hand edit. Men only costs 2/3 of the Eg and no MPs; guns only costs 1/3 of the Eg and the MPs. 20 crew or fraction thereof for all ship types cost 1 Eg. Additions cannot raise units above the maximum sizes given in rule 5.9.
5.15.
  States may disband existing units. Units can be disbanded by the Secretary of War of their state, or the President and Vice-President. The disbanded unit must be in a strategic square that is free of enemy units, except for militia which may disband in the presence of enemy units if they are in the strategic square of the city in which they were raised. Units in garrisons in off-map ports cannot be disbanded. Batteries will be lost, as will supplies carried. The manpower in a disbanded unit will return to the manpower pool at the end of the season following the season in which the unit is disbanded. If the unit is disbanded outside its state's territory, then approximately 40% of its strength is lost and not returned to the manpower pool, and the disbanding state pays a penalty of 1 VP for every 250 men disbanded (as if they were casualties). Manpower from disbanded militia units returns to the militia pool of the city in which it was raised. The unit will be disbanded during the orders phase at the beginning of the turn, and will not carry out any orders sent for it on the turn it is disbanded.
5.16.
  Ships and TRs may be removed from the game when not in the same tactical location as enemy ships. Ships can be scuttled by the Secretary of the Navy of their side, or the President and Vice-President. The ship commander and deputy may NOT scuttle the ship. Ships may not be removed if they are in a sea area unless at least one friendly ship (not being removed) is present, but TRs may be. In either case, the crew go back into the manpower pool at the end of the season following the season of the removal. TRs may not disband with units aboard. Any supplies aboard TRs that are removed are lost.

6. Maintenance Costs

6.1. Each unit, regiment, and ship a state owns require maintenance costs. For land units, the cost depends on the size of the unit and whether it is active or inactive; inactive units cost less to maintain. For artillery brigades, costs depend on the number of men unless the number of men is less than 100 times the number of batteries, in which case it depends on the number of batteries. Unformed regiments and batteries cost 1 Eg per turn (same as they would if formed into inactive units). Each wartime turn, maintenance costs of units and regiments are:
 

Unit type Active cost Active MP cost
Inactive cost Inactive MP cost
IN
4 per 600 men 1 per 600 men
1 per 600 men 0
CV 4 per 300 men 1 per 300 men
1 per 300 men 0
HA/LA/NB/SA 6/4/4/8 per battery or 100 men
1/1/1/2 per battery or 100 men
1 per battery or 100 men
0
MI 5 per 500 men 1 per 500 men
None 0
AQ/CQ/PB 75/25/15 4/2/4
10/5/5 0

6.2.  For purposes of calculating costs, unit strengths are rounded up to the nearest 300 men for infantry, nearest 150 men for cavalry, and nearest 50 men for artillery. If an infantry or cavalry unit has a battery attached, it pays a maintenance cost of 3/1 Eg (active/inactive) for infantry units and 4/1 Eg for cavalry units. Example: a light cavalry brigade with 1100 men and a battery costs 19 per wartime turn to maintain (same cost as a 1200 man brigade, plus 4 for the artillery battery), not 12 (the cost of a 1000 man brigade without artillery). Maintenance costs are assessed each turn. Artillery costs depend on either the number of batteries or 100s of men in the unit, whichever is greater. Example: An HA unit with 200 men and 2 batteries costs 10 per turn (2 batteries, 2x100 men) but one with 300 men and 1 battery costs 15 per turn (3x100 men) and one with 100 men and 3 batteries also costs 15 per turn (3 batteries).
6.3. For active ships, the cost depends on whether the ship is in its base harbor or not; ships (but not transport groups) tied up in their base cost less than their ordinary maintenance cost. Inactive ships do not cost anything. On each turn, maintenance costs of active ships are:

Ship type Sailing cost Sailing MP cost
Base harbor cost Base harbor MP cost
Ironclad (IC)
8 10
4 5
Frigate (FR) 5
6
2 3
Sloop (SL) 4
4
2
2
Gunboat (GB)
2
3
1
2
River Ironclad (RI)
6
10
3
5
River Gunboat (RG)
2
3
1 2
Transports (TR)
8 per 1000 capacity 0 8 per 1000 capacity 0
River Transports (RT)
6 per 1000 capacity 0
6 per 1000 capacity 0

7. Buying Supplies, Stores, Depots, and Caches

7.1. Nations can buy supplies and stores in cities they control if no hostile units are in the same strategic square as the city, or an adjacent strategic square. Under certain diplomatic conditions they can be bought in neutral ports in England and France as well. The Secretary of the Treasury can purchase supplies and stores, or the President or Vice-President on his behalf. The Secretary of War can buy supplies and the Secretary of the Navy can buy stores. The governor and Congressman of each state bloc can purchase supplies (but not stores) in the cities of their bloc.
7.2. Supplies cost 5 Eg apiece; stores cost 2 Eg apiece.
7.3. There is a limit on the number of supplies that a state can buy in any one city. In wartime, a state can buy 40 stores per turn in a port city, or 10 supplies per turn in the city, or any combination of stores and supplies such that stores + 4*supplies = 40. (One supply is the same "size" as four stores for this purpose.)
7.4. There is also a limit on the total number of supplies that a state can buy in total on any one turn. If a state buys only stores in one turn, the limit is 20 times the number of cities it controls. If it buys only supplies, the limit is 5 times the number of cities it controls. If it buys both, the number of stores it buys, plus the number of supplies it buys times 4, must be less than 20 times the number of cities it controls. Example: If the Confederacy controls 60 cities, then it can raise 60*20 = 1200 stores, or 60*5 = 300 supplies, or 200 supplies and 400 stores (200*4 + 400 = 1200), or other combinations such that stores + 4*supplies = 1200.
7.5. States can establish a standing order in wartime to buy a certain number of supplies in each city they control, or to forward a certain number of supplies to another city, or both. Standing orders are cancelled when a city or port is captured. They can also be cancelled by sending a standing order for 0 supplies purchased and leaving the forwarding boxes on the order form blank.
7.6. Supplies and stores cannot be bought in off-map ports, and stores cannot be bought in inland cities.  Automatic forwarding orders cannot send supplies to or from an off-map port, nor stores to or from an inland city. In these cases movements of supplies and stores must be ordered as separate orders (see ROTD rule 11.6 and WISC rule 3.5).
7.7.  Nations can buy supply depots and supply caches. Supply depot construction orders can be submitted by a state's Treasury Secretary, or by its President or Vice-President. They cannot be submitted by the War Secretary. Depots and caches must be placed in a strategic square that contains friendly-controlled rail, friendly-controlled navigable river, a friendly-controlled city, or is within 4 squares of a friendly-controlled city, or a friendly depot (not cache). They must be in open terrain strategic squares (including river squares but not river-swamp or river-marsh) and must be in rail or riverbank tactical squares. (A riverbank tactical square is one that shares an edge with a river tactical square.) Depots cost 200 Eg to build, and cost 25 Eg and 6 MPs per turn to maintain. Caches cost 100 Eg to build and 10 Eg per turn (no MPs) to maintain. Both depots and caches take two turns to build.
7.8. Nations can remove existing supply depots and caches. Removals happen at the end of the turn on which they are ordered, just after the finance phase, so that supplies can be moved out of them on the turn of removal, or they can be captured and looted on the turn of removal, and so that their maintenance must be paid on the turn of removal. Removal orders can be issued by the War Secretary or the President or Vice-President (but not the Treasury Secretary).

8. Fortifications

8.1.  States can build fortifications in tactical squares on the ROTD map. Fortifications are initially built at level 1, and can be improved to levels 2 through 5. Fortifications of level 5 cannot be improved further. Fortifications face in one of the eight directions, and protect against attack from that direction plus one adjacent direction to either side. Example: A fortification facing north protects against attacks from NE, N, and NW; a fortification facing southeast protects against attacks from E, SE, and S. Fortifications do not combine; if a tactical square has more than one fortification protecting against attack in a given direction, then the highest level is applied. Example: Tactical square 5-6 in Gettysburg (K1-R9) has a level 3 fortification facing north and a level 1 fortification facing west. If the tactical square is attacked from the north or northeast, the defending units receive protection from level 3 fortifications. If attacked from the west or southwest, they receive protection from level 1 fortifications, since the west-facing fortification protects them but the north-facing one does not. If attacked from the northwest, they receive protection from level 3 fortifications (not level 4) because the higher-rated fortification facing northwest is level 3. A tactical square can be protected from attack in all 8 directions if it has 3 fortifications in it, facing in complementary directions.
8.2. The Treasury Secretary, or the President or Vice-President acting on his behalf, can order fortifications constructed or improved. The commander or deputy of a unit in a given tactical square can also order fortifications built in that square by that unit if the fortifications being built are level 1 or level 2. Otherwise the unit commander cannot order them even if the unit is doing the work (because of the associated cost; see rule 8.3 below). Fortifications cannot be ordered by the War Secretary unless he is eligible to do so by one of the qualifications above. The order must specify the strategic and tactical square to be fortified, the facing direction of the fortification, and if desired, a unit to construct the fortification. If no unit is specified then civilian labor is used to build the fortification. If there is no fortification in that tactical square facing in that direction, a new level 1 fortification will be constructed. Otherwise the fortification will be improved to the next highest level.
8.3. The time required to build/improve a fortification is the number of turns equal to the level of the fortification being built/improved, including the turn on which the order is submitted. Example: Level 1 fortifications are built on the turn they are ordered. Level 2 fortifications are built on the following turn, and so forth, one additional turn for each higher level desired. If the fortification is being built by a unit, the unit must not move or fight during the duration of the build. The cost is 20 Eg per level (e.g., a level 4 fortification costs 80 Eg) except that if a level 1 or level 2 fortification is built by a unit with at least 10 experience (for level 1) or at least 20 experience (for level 2), then there is no cost. (Note: At some point the use of slave/contraband labor will change this cost - probably 20 will be the cost when you use slaves/contrabands and otherwise the cost will be 30 or 40 per level.)
8.4. A fortification cannot be built by civilian labor if there is an enemy unit in the strategic square of the build. If an enemy unit enters the strategic square during the build time, then the build is delayed by one turn. A fortification built by a unit can be built with an enemy unit in the strategic square as long as the tactical square of the build is not attacked and the unit does not move away.
8.5.  Fortifications cannot be damaged or destroyed in combat
. (I do not think it should be possible to damage them with bombardment but maybe we should think about allowing that.) It should probably be possible to remove them, and the time and the cost should be the same as the time and cost to build them (you're moving dirt either way). For now this is a GA manual action - email the GAs for action.

9. Upgrading Weapons

9.1.  Sides may purchase weapons upgrades for units. Units must be in supply to receive weapons upgrades. The Secretary of the Treasury, or the President or Vice-President acting on his behalf, can order weapons upgrades - the Secretary of War cannot do so. Infantry and cavalry units can upgrade either their personal arms (from muskets to rifles for infantry, from carbines to breechloaders for cavalry) or their cannons (smoothbore to rifled) if they have a battery attached, or both. Militia can only upgrade their personal arms (muskets to rifles), and artillery units, including NB, can only upgrade their cannons.
9.2.  The cost to upgrade weapons is as follows (it is cheaper when building the unit new because you are not paying for the original, lower-quality weapons):

Unit type
When upgrading existing unit
When building new unit
Infantry
15 Eg and 1 MP per 600 men
10 Eg per 600 men
Infantry battery
20 Eg and 3 MP
10 Eg and 1 MP
Cavalry
20 Eg and 1 MP per 300 men
15 Eg per 500 men
Cavalry battery
20 Eg and 3 MP
10 Eg and 1 MP
LA or HA
20 Eg and 3 MP per battery
10 Eg and 1 MP per battery
NB or SA
40 Eg and 6 MP per battery
20 Eg and 2 MP per battery
Militia
15 Eg and 1 MP per 500 men
10 Eg per 500 men



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