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American-Mexican War OnLine

Gathered In Their Masses

AMWOL Variant

Rule Book

Last modified October 5, 2017

This document provides the rules of Gathered In Their Masses (GITM), the land combat module of the American-Mexican War OnLine (AMWOL). A player who has read and understood these rules should be able to command units in GITM. New players should start with the rules summary before going through this document. More details of the rules are available for those seeking more information about the mechanics of GITM by clicking on the "More Details" links in this page.

The basic rules are divided into twelve sections:

1. Strategic Map

1.1.  GITM takes place on a strategic map of North America, 140 columns wide by 110 rows high. Each square on the strategic map is approximately 15 miles square. Each column is referred to by a letter and number; the westmost column is A0, the next is A1, and the eastmost is N9. Each row is also referred to by letter and number; the northmost row is P0, the next is P1, and the southmost is Z9. A given square is referred to by its column and row, separated by a dash. Thus, J2-Y4 is Mexico City. 
1.2.  Each strategic square has a particular terrain. There are eleven possible types of terrain; open, water, hill, forest, forested hill, mountain, high mountain, desert, high desert, marsh, and swamp. Some strategic squares also contain cities. Squares with water, high mountain, desert, and swamp terrain are impassible.  High desert is passable but units that run out of supply in those squares are destroyed.
1.3.  Each strategic square belongs to one of the two AMWOL nations: the United States and Mexico. Each city is controlled by one state. Clicking on the city icon will display its name, the state that controls it, and the amount of supplies available there.

 
  F8 F9 G0 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 H0 H1 H2  
V0
 
 
Hills
Mountains
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
 
River
 
Hills
Hills
V0
V1
Hills
 
 
 
Mountains
 
Mountains
 
 
Mountains
 
 
Mountains
Mountains
Mountains
V1
V2
 
 
 
Hills
Hills
 
Hills
Hills
Hills
Mountains
 
 
Mountains
 
 
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Hills
Hills
Hills
Mountains
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
 
 
V3
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Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
Hills
River
 
 
Hills
River
 
Mountains
V4
V5
 
 
 
Hills
Hills
 
 
River
River
 
River
 
 
V5
V6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
River
River
 
 
 
V6
V7
 
 
 
River
River
 
 
 
 
River
 
 
 
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River
River
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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River
 
 
 
River
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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W0
 
River
River
River
River
River
River
River
 
 
 
 
 
 
W0
  F8 F9 G0 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 H0 H1 H2  

Sample strategic map: northeastern Italy

 1.4.  Strategic squares which contain one or more units are marked with flags. Blue flags represent active troops of the player's side and active troops of actively-allied sides, red flags represent active hostile troops, and gray flags represent active neutral troops. A square may be marked with more than one flag if it contains troops of more than one of these categories, and a black flag indicates all three types are present. Clicking on a flag will reveal the state or states of the troops present in the square, and their approximate number and branch of service (infantry, cavalry, artillery, headquarters). The reported number of neutral or enemy troops may be somewhat higher or lower than the true number of units there. The reported number of same-side and actively allied units will be accurate. A strategic square cannot contain more than 200 active units and two inactive units  (in cities the limit is three inactive units). Militia units in their home city and units in forts do not count against the limits on inactive units. If a square contains only inactive units, it will be marked with a blue, red, or grey tent icon depending on whether they are actively allied, hostile, or neutral. If a square contains only shattered units, it will be marked with a boxed S of the appropriate color.

Click here for map legend

2. Tactical Maps

2.1.  Each strategic square on the GITM strategic map has an associated tactical map, 15 columns wide by 15 columns high. Each square on each tactical map is approximately one mile square. Each column and row is referred to by a number. Column 0 is the westmost column and column 14 is the eastmost column; row 0 is the northmost row and row 14 is the southmost row. Each square on a tactical map is referred to by column and row, separated by a dash. For example, 14-1 is the tactical square directly below the upper right-hand corner of a tactical map. 
2.2.  Each tactical square has a particular terrain. There are ten possible types of terrain; open, hills, high hills, river, ford, mountain, pass, water, forest, and town. Tactical squares with river, mountain, and water terrain are impassible. 
2.3  Rivers and mountain ranges join continously across the edges of adjacent tactical maps. For example, if tactical square 0-5 is a river square in a given strategic square, then tactical square 14-5 will also be a river square in the strategic square west of the given one. 
2.4.  Each tactical square has a defensive terrain rating from 0 to 4 indicating the general suitability of that square for defense. A rating of 0 indicates poor defensive terrain; a rating of 4 indicates excellent defensive terrain. 
2.5.  Tactical squares which contain one or more units are marked with flags in the same way as strategic squares are. Clicking on a flag on a tactical map will reveal the identity of the units present in the tactical square. A tactical square cannot contain more than 24 units, and cannot contain more than 12 units allied to one another (see rule 8.3 for the effects of this on tactical movement).
2.6. City tactical squares may have forts. Forts are rated for strength (1 to 5, 5 being strongest) and capacity (measured the same way as transport capacity: 1 per man for infantry and HQs, 3 per man for cavalry, 2 per man for artillery, units with attached batteries count 100 men as artillerists). Clicking on a city will show the strength and size of its fort, and units in forts have an F appended to their unit IDs.
2.7.  A city can be besieged (with or without a fort). If the city is besieged, there will be a note at the bottom of the tactical map noting that it is, and the movement of units and supplies into and out of the city tac square will be limited.
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  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  

Sample tactical map showing river with
ford, hills, forest, town, and four units

 

3. Units

3.1.  Units come in ten types; infantry, light infantry, light cavalry, dragoons, lancers, medium artillery, light artillery, horse artillery, siege artillery, and militia. Each unit has a nationality (US or MX) and a number within that nationality, and its unit ID is composed of its nationality, number, and type. Thus, MX3LI is the Mexican 3rd Light Infantry. There are also two types of headquarters units, army headquarters and corps headquarters. Each unit is composed a number of men and a number of attached artillery batteries (possibly zero).
3.2.  Each unit is rated for quality, experience, morale, fatigue, and initiative. Quality represents the innate abilities of the officers and men of the unit. Experience represents their exposure to combat over the course of previous campaigns. Morale represents their elan and willingness to fight. Fatigue represents their endurance and ability to execute orders. Most actions a unit can take increase its fatigue [More Details]. At the end of each turn, cavalry, light artillery, and headquarters units regain 4 points of fatigue; other units regain 3. Initiative represents the ability of the unit to move promptly on the battlefield.
3.3.  Each unit is located in a particular strategic square and a particular tactical square within that strategic square. 

MX1IN

Commander: Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Deputy: Mariano Paredes
Location: G8-V5 strategic, 0-2 tactical
Strength: 1000 Batteries: 0
Quality: Fair Experience: 8 Morale: 6 Fatigue: 0
Initiative: 4 Supplies: 0 Ammunition: 1
Supply: MX1CQ Communications: MX1CQ

Sample unit status report

3.4.  Each unit has a commander and a deputy commander, both of whom receive reports from the unit and can send orders for it. Commanders and deputy commanders are assigned by the Minister of War of the unit's state, or by the commander of any army headquarters unit of that state. Note that commanders of army headquarters cannot assign commanders to units of different state than the state of the army headquarters unit. Each player has a password that identifies him or her as the commander or deputy commander of his or her units.
3.5.  A state can merge one of its units into another if they are of the same type (IN, MC, etc). Units to be merged must be active, but can be activated before the merger and/or inactivated afterwards. If the combined unit exceeds the maximum size allowed for that type (1500 for infantry, 1000 for cavalry, 300 for artillery, 1000 for militia, no more than 1 battery or 3 batteries for artillery) then the excess manpower returns to the manpower pool at the end of the following season, and if the units are on foreign soil, 40% of the manpower is lost and casualty VPs apply. HQs and militia units may not be combined. The units must be in the same strategic square, and if there is an enemy unit present in the strategic square, then they must be in the same tactical square. If US1IN is merged into US2IN, then the combined unit will be US2IN, its commander and location will be those of US2IN, its strength and batteries will be the sum of the strength and batteries of the two merging units, its quality, experience, morale, fatigue, and ammunition will be the average of the two merging units weighted by their strengths, and the new unit will be carrying a supply only if both units were before the merger. Merger will happen during the orders phase (before movement and combat).
3.6.  Units gain experience by fighting in battles, 1 to 5 points in each tactical phase of combat depending on the odds of the battle, receiving more points in battles with even odds. They also gain experience by marching (making strategic moves), 1 point per turn, until they reach 8 experience, at which point further marching does not increase their experience. At the end of each campaign, units lose a fraction of their experience, reflecting turnover of men within the unit and the effects of inactivity if they have not been gaining experience by fighting and marching.
3.7.  Units gain morale by being in winning battles or by being close to them. They lose morale by being in losing battles or by being close to them. Larger battles produce greater increases and decreases in morale. Units that capture cities, or are near them, gain morale, and units near cities that are captured lose morale. Morale starts at 50 for each unit and moves up or down. Each turn morale tends to return towards 50 if the unit has not gained or lost morale from battle or city capture. [More Details]

4. Detection

4.1. During a campaign, on the strategic map, active units can detect same-side and actively allied units up to 3 squares away, except army headquarters units which can detect same-side and actively allied units up to 5 squares away. Units can detect all other units up to 1 square away, except light cavalry units which can detect other units up to 2 squares away if their strength is 250 or greater. Inactive units do not detect other units at all. Position reports will display all squares within 5 squares of an active unit. Number of enemy and allied units will be reported only approximately. Unit stacks reported as  "regiments"  normally have 2-3 units, "brigade" have 3-5, "brigades" have 6-8, and "division" has more than 8. If more than one division is reported, the number of units is approximately 12 times the number of divisions reported. Reports will also have the letters I,C,A,H to indicated infantry, cavalry, artillery, and headquarters units, and these letters are also only approximately correct. Militia will be reported as infantry in this instance.
4.2.  On the tactical map, units can detect all same-side units, all actively allied units, and the nearest enemy unit (or units if two or more are equally close) in each of the eight directions (north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest). Headquarters units (army and corps) do not sight units nor block sight by enemy units (this prevents them from taking advantage of their immunity from combat to do screening or reconnaissance - see rule 9.2 below).
4.3.  Units in the strategic square of port cities (whether in the city tactical square or not) will receive reports of the ships in the port (both harbor and coastal waters). Ships located in the port will automatically report the identities of GITM units in that port's tactical square, and have a chance to report the identities of GITM units in the port's strategic square but not in its tactical square.Garrisons of off-GITM-map ports will report the presence of ships and frigates in those ports to the Naval Minister with a one-turn delay.
4.4.  When units move tactically, their movement is reported to all same-side and actively allied units in the same strategic square. If the start and end points of their movement are visible to any other unit in the strategic square, the movement is reported to all other units in the square as well. If only the end point is visible, then only the end point is reported; if only the start point is visible, then only the start point is reported. If neither the start point nor the end point of the movement is visible to a non-actively allied unit, then the movement is not reported to non-actively allied units. A movement through a waypoint is treated as two separate movements for the purposes of this rule.
4.5.  If a unit moves strategically, its departure is reported to all same-side and actively allied units in the square it is departing from, and if the unit is visible to any non-actively allied unit, then the departure is reported to all non-actively allied units in the square. Its arrival is reported to all actively allied units in the square it is arriving in, and if its arrival point is visible to any non-actively allied unit, then its arrival is reported to all non-actively allied units.
4.6.  On the strategic map, each player can see only what is visible to the units assigned to his personal command. On the tactical map, each player can see what is visible to any same-side or actively allied unit on the same tactical map.
4.7.  Each side's War Minister will receive two types of additional information about enemy dispositions. First, he will receive occasional reports of the location of headquarters units; second, he will receive reports of the location of non-actively allied troops on his nation's territory and not within sight of that nation's troops. The locations of these reports will be one turn out of date and may contain errors, sometimes large ones.

5. Turn Sequence

5.1. GITM is played in turns. One campaign consists of 15 campaign turns, unless the game ends earlier.
5.2. Turns are divided into a supply phase, tactical phases, and strategic phases. Combat occurs during tactical phases, after tactical movement is completed. Tactical movement happens first and strategic movement happens subsequently, with three exceptions. First, at the start of the turn, units in squares where battles were fought the previous turn can make a strategic move to withdraw from the battle. Second, in the middle of tactical movement, there is one phase of strategic movement, to permit units to join a battle in progress if they are in an adjacent strategic square. Third, after strategic movement there is a final phase of tactical movement, to permit arriving units to deploy on the tactical map. Each turn has five tactical and six strategic phases. Thus, a GITM turn begins with a supply phase, followed by strategic withdrawal, followed by two phases of tactical movement, then one phase of strategic movement, then two more phases of tactical movement, then five more phases of strategic movement, ending with a final tactical phase in which combat does not occur. The following diagram shows the exact sequence of a campaign turn.


5.3. At the end of each turn, every player will receive two reports. The first one contains a list of all events that happened during the turn that were observed by the player's units. The second one contains maps and unit status reports showing the positions of the player's units at the start of the following turn.

Click here for more information on turn reports

Click here for more information on position reports

6. Orders

6.1. Units send orders for each unit, for each turn, at the GITM Order Desk. Orders may be sent by the commander of the unit or the deputy commander of the unit. No other player may send orders for the unit unless it is reassigned. If multiple orders are sent for a unit, the last one sent by the commander is accepted; if the commander did not send orders, then the last order sent by the deputy commander is accepted. The orders sent govern the actions of the unit during the turn. During campaign turns, players submit orders using the campaign order submission form, which is divided into six sections.
6.2.  In the first section, players type the ID of the unit which they wish to send orders, and their password to identify themselves as commander or deputy commander.
6.3.  In the second section, players send orders for strategic movement. Players can specify a path for movement, and can also indicate that the unit should pursue enemy units moving strategically, or should move to the nearest adjacent battle square. They may also specify an entry square, and indicate whether they wish the unit to halt its movement if it encounters an enemy unit during strategic movement, in the case that it moves into an enemy-held square (halt on detection) or an enemy moves into its square (halt on enemy entry).
6.4. I n the third section, players specify tactical movement. They can specify a destination square and an intermediate waypoint (they do not need to specify the entire movement path), and the tactical phase for movement to take place. They can specify that a unit should not enter a fort if it enters a city with a fort (units will enter the fort unless ordered not to). They can also indicate that the unit should engage an enemy combat unit in its strategic square, and the tactical phases in which it should do so. They also specify the line in the battle formation in which the unit should attempt to place itself (first line, second line, or rear) if it finds itself in combat.
6.5.  In the fourth section, players specify the unit's reaction to the movement of other enemy units. Units can give support to battles in nearby squares if combat takes place, or can move to intercept enemy units moving nearby. In both cases, units can specify the area in which they wish to react, by specifying its center tactical square and its radius, and the tactical phases in which they wish to react.
6.6.  In the fifth section, players indicate the offensive and defensive postures they wish their units to take, in a range between seeking combat and avoiding it. When in combat, a unit will fight according to its defensive posture if it did not move into the battle tactical square on the same tactical phase as the battle, or if it is allied to a unit that did not. In either of those cases it is defending a pre-existing position. Otherwise it will use its offensive posture. In a battle where all units on both sides moved to the battle tactical square during the tactical phase of the battle, all units on both sides will use their offensive posture.
6.7.  In the sixth section, players indicate the amount of supplies they wish their units to carry, and the source from which they wish to draw supply, if they desire. A unit need not specify a supply source; if it does not, the closest available source will be used. It is only necessary to specify a source if there are two or more available sources and it matters to the commander which source is used. If a unit does not wish to draw supply at all, it can enter "None" and it will not draw supply.
6.8.  In general, players may submit orders in all sections in any combinations they desire.
6.9.  If a unit fails to send orders, default orders will be carried out for the unit. The unit will not move, will use skirmish combat modes on attack and defense (except militia units will use attack/defend), will seek the front line in combat, will support a same-side or actively allied unit in combat within 2 tactical squares of its start-of-turn position, and will draw one unit of supply.
6.10.  On all turns, if a unit is reassigned during a turn, or its commander or deputy changes passwords during a turn, then orders for the unit submitted before the reassignment or password change was submitted are evaluated using the old assignment and passwords, and orders for the unit submitted afer the reassignment or password change was submitted are evaluated using the new assignment and passwords. [More Details]
 

Click here for more information on the order submission form

7. Strategic Movement

7.1. Units can move one square on the strategic map in each phase of strategic movement. Infantry units, medium and light artillery units, and corps headquarters have a normal movement allowance of three squares per turn; horse artillery units, cavalry units, and army headquarters units have a normal allowance of four squares per turn. Siege artillery have a normal movement allowance of two squares per turn. Militia have a normal movement allowance of two squares per turn; they may not move to a strategic square outside their home nation. Mexican militia may move anywhere in Mexico. Units pay one point of fatigue for every strategic square moved, or two if moving into a mountain terrain. Units with fatigue in excess of 18 may not move strategically.
7.2. A unit's normal movement allowance is decreased by one square if it is carrying supplies, as it is compelled to remain with its wagon train, and is decreased by one square if it is not in communications (see rule 10, Communications and Supply, below).
7.3. A unit can move one strategic square beyond its normal allowance as a forced march, but pays three fatigue points (four points, if cavalry or light artillery), rather than one, for the additional square of movement. Militia may not force march.
7.4. Units specify the path they wish to take in strategic movement in the strategic movement section of the orders page, one square per box. Diagonal movement is permitted. For example, a unit moving four squares (in four strategic phases) could move G4-V6 G5-V6 G6-V7 G7-V8. If a unit is ordered to move to a strategic square not adjacent to the one it is in, it will halt its movement at that point. Example: a unit ordered to move G4-V6 G5-V6 G7-V8 will halt in G5-V6 because G7-V8 is not adjacent to G5-V6.
7.5.  A unit in a strategic square where a battle was fought on the previous turn may make a strategic withdrawal during the strategic withdrawal phase. Units making strategic withdrawal cannot move to a strategic square containing active hostile combat units at the start of the turn. If a unit making a diagonal strategic move would be interrupted (see rule 7.15 below) then the move cannot be made. A unit that makes a strategic withdrawal does not move in strategic phase 1, having made its first move in the strategic withdrawal phase, but continues moving normally in strategic phase 2 and later. It pays two fatigue points rather than one for making a strategic withdrawal move, and will lose some stragglers; 10% to 20% if an enemy unit is in an adjacent tactical square, 0% to 5% if not. Enemy units can pursue units making strategic withdrawals, and the pursuit will happen during the strategic withdrawal phase; the pursuing unit will not move in strategic phase 1. (Because units can withdraw to strategic squares if they were free of active hostile combat units at the start of the turn, a unit that moves in pursuit will not prevent other units from withdrawing to the same strategic square later in the phase.)
7.6.  Units can skip a phase of strategic movement by leaving a blank box in the strategic movement sequence; they can still move their full movement allowance as long as the order fills in at least three (four for LC/MC/HA) of the boxes.This permits units can choose in which of the six phases of strategic movement they wish to make their three or four moves, as long as they make only one in any given phase.
7.7.  Units move in random order in each strategic phase, and the order is different in each phase of the turn.
7.8. A unit cannot make a strategic movement unless it has a path to the edge of its current tactical map which is free of enemy units (see illustration). Neutral units block movement in this way only when in their home nation.  [More Details] Units cannot march strategically if to do so, they must pass diagonally between two non-actively allied units adjacent to them on their present tactical map. Units in besieged cities may not move strategically. If a unit's move is blocked in one strategic phase, it will attempt to make the move again in the next strategic phase, and will continue the rest of its movement orders, each one phase later than ordered (including any phases skipped).
7.9. If a unit is in the presence of enemy combat units (that is, non-HQ units) at its turn to move, then it cannot make a strategic movement that requires it to cross a river or mountain range. It must first cross to the proper side of the river/range in tactical movement. Neutral combat units block movement in this way only when in their home nation. [More Details]
7.10. If a unit selects the "halt on detection" option in strategic movement, it will halt strategic movement when it moves into an enemy-occupied square. If it does not, then it will attempt to continue its strategic movement (the enemy unit may block its further strategic movement under rule 7.7). 
7.11. If a unit selects the "halt on enemy entry" option in strategic movement, it will halt strategic movement upon detecting an enemy unit entering its strategic square. If it does not, then it will attempt to continue its strategic movement (again, the enemy unit may block its further strategic movement under rule 7.8).
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
              U              
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
                             
For a unit at U to move strategically, the
appropriate colored squares (red for north,
gray for northwest, etc.) must be clear of
enemy units to the edge of the tactical map
7.12. A unit can select the "pursuit" option in strategic movement. If it does so, then if an enemy unit leaves its strategic square, it will attempt to follow that enemy unit. It may fail due to rule 7.7. If a unit has both a strategic movement path and the pursuit option selected, it will follow the strategic path and attempt pursuit until it makes a successful pursuit, at which time its strategic path will be cancelled and it will exclusively pursue for the rest of the turn. A unit in pursuit mode will make a forced march to pursue if it can do so.
7.13. A unit can select the "march to battle" option in strategic movement. If it does so, and does not have a specified strategic move to make, then it will find the largest battle (strategic square with at least one same-side or actively allied unit and at least one hostile unit present) in or adjacent to its own strategic square. If the largest battle is in its own square, it will not move. Otherwise it will move to the square with the largest battle, force marching to do so if necessary. If there are no battles in the same or adjacent square the unit will not move. A unit which makes a move due to a march to battle order will cancel all programmed strategic movement later in the turn. A unit with a specified strategic path will not march to battle until it completes its specified path, unless it has empty boxes in its movement path, in which case it will attempt to move to battle during the phases in which it has no planned strategic move. 
7.14.
When units move strategically, they are placed on the tactical map in their new strategic square along the first four rows or columns of the edge of the map in the direction from which they entered. For example, a unit that moved north will be placed on the south edge of its new tactical map (ie, in rows 11 to 14), or a unit that moved east will be placed on the west edge (in columns 0 to 3). A unit that moved northeast can enter in the west half of the south edge, or the south half of the west edge, and similarly for the other diagonal movement directions. A unit can specify an entry tactical square for its strategic movement. If it does not, the coordinates of the tactical square in which it begins the turn will be used. The unit will enter the tactical map as close to the entry square as possible. For example, if the unit specifies the entry square 5-4, then the unit will enter at 5-3 if moving south, at 3-4 if moving east, at 11-4 if moving west, at 5-3 if moving southeast (closer to 5-2 than the alternative choice of 3-4), and so forth. If the east (or west) edge is the same distance as the north (or south) edge, then the unit will shift east (or west). Example: A unit moving southeast with an entry square of 5-5 will enter at 3-5, not at 5-3. A unit cannot enter the map in a tactical square containing an enemy unit, nor one with an enemy unit between it and the map edge. The entry square will be adjusted as necessary to prevent this. [More Details] If a unit is moving from one strategic square with mountain or river terrain to another, then if enemy units, or neutral units on home soil, are present in its starting strategic square, then it must enter on the same side of the river/range that it was on at the start of its strategic movement. If a unit in such a situation tries to move strategically along a river or mountain range and attempts to enter on the opposite bank/side than it starts on, then its entry square will be adjusted to keep it on the correct bank/side. [More Details]
7.15.  If a unit attempts to move diagonally, so that it passes between two squares adjacent to its current square, then its movement may be blocked by an active (not inactive or shattered) enemy unit in one of the adjacent squares the moving unit is passing between. The unit will be charged one step of strategic movement and be assessed fatigue points. However, in the next strategic phase it will attempt to continue its movement to its original destination square, and in subsequent strategic movement phases will attempt to remain on its planned movement path. [More Details] Neutral units block movement in this way only when in their home nation.
7.16.  Movement into the squares of Guatemala is forbidden.
7.17.  Units (except militia) may board transports and move with the transports according to the PATE rules for moving ships, then land at another part of the map or at off-map ports. To do this they may enter a transport group ID (for example, US1TR) or an off-map port name (for example, Baltimore) as their first strategic move. See PATE rules section 9 for details. [More Details]
7.18.  During the pre-game deployment turn, non-militia units can only move if they are in communications at their present location and will be in communications at their destination, and have an unbroken chain of contact [More Details] from their location to their destination, based on the position at the start of movement. (That is, one may not move a CQ and then use it in its new location to establish communications for a moving unit.) For this purpose, chains of contact may be made between any two allied and unblockaded ports without regard to distance. Units without communications may not move, but remain where they are. Moving units are not limited by distance or by movement paths; they need only specify the strategic square in which they wish to be placed, and the tactical square. If the tactical square box on the order form is left blank, the current tactical square will be kept if it is passable terrain in the new strategic square, otherwise a new tactical square will be randomly assigned. If the strategic square is left blank, the unit will move to a new tactical square in its current strategic square. Units may not board TRs on peace/truce turns, but may move to garrison in off-map ports if they have a chain of contact to an unblockaded port (or are in an unblockaded off-map port) and the destination off-map port is unblockaded. Units aboard TRs at the start of a peace/truce turn may be ordered off; if they are not, they will unload into the port the transport group is in if it is in one, and if not, to the transport group's base port. If the transport group's base port is hostile, the units will be disbanded. Movement into strategic squares containing hostile units, or into strategic squares owned by neutral powers, is forbidden. Squares in any nation with more than one state belong to the state that controls the nearest city. [More Details]. Militia units cannot move on deployment turns. The only limit on the stacking of active units is the limit of 200 total units per strategic square. Units may violate the 12 units per tactical square rule during movement but will be randomly restacked at the end of the deployment turn to enforce the 12-unit limit.
7.19.  In addition to the limits of rule 7.18, on pre-game deployment turns, the US may not move units into or out of Yerba Buena or Fort Dodge, and Mexico may not deploy units north of the Rio Grande or into cities in row S0 or higher.

8. Tactical Movement

8.1. Units can move on the tactical map in each phase of tactical movement. Light and medium cavalry and horse artillery ("fast units") and army headquarters units can move up to six tactical squares in each tactical phase. Other units, including corps headquarters units, can move up to four tactical squares in each phase. If there are hostile units in their strategic square, units pay one fatigue point for each tactical move they may; otherwise tactical movement does not incur fatigue.Units with fatigue in excess of 8 may not move tactically if enemy units are present in their strategic square. A unit which makes both a tactical move and a support move in the same phase pays two fatigue points; if it started with 8 fatigue points with enemy units present, then the tactical move increases its fatigue to 9 and it cannot make a support move. A unit which moves to a waypoint and then continues to its destination in the same phase pays only one fatigue point.
8.2. Units moving tactically specify the tactical square to which they wish to move and, optionally, an intermediate waypoint to move through en route. If no waypoint is specified, then units move in a straight line to the destination square; if a waypoint is specified, units move in a straight line to the waypoint, then in a straight line to the destination from the waypoint. These are referred to as "specified moves" below. They can also specify the tactical phase in which they wish the movement to begin. Movement will commence in the specified phase (in the first phase if no starting phase is specified). If the unit can reach its destination in one phase, it will complete the move; if not the unit will move as far as it can along the straight-line path to the destination, and will continue moving in later tactical phases until the movement is completed or the turn ends. Units can also specify not to enter a fort if they move into a fortified city tac square. Units currently in forts wishing to exit, or currently in tactical squares with forts wishing to enter the fort, can do so by sending an order to move to their current tactical square (the fort's tactical square) and checking or not checking the "Do not enter fort" order, as appropriate. Units moving in and out of forts, but not moving to a different tactical square, will move before any unit which is moving to a different tactical square.
8.3. If a unit encounters an enemy unit during its move, either at the destination or prior to the destination, then its movement is halted, as is the movement of the enemy unit or units it encountered, and a combat begins. [More Details] When units of more than one state are in the destination square, each state fights on one side in the battle according to whether it is allied to, or hostile to, the unit which initiated the battle. [More Details] A unit which is in evade offensive mode and cannot attack an enemy unit this way, or a unit which cannot enter combat for other reasons, will instead halt one square short of the enemy unit. If a unit's movement calls for it to encounter a neutral unit, then it will not move at all. If the unit's destination square, or waypoint square if it uses one, contains 12 allied units, then the unit is blocked and does not move. (Squares with 12 allied units in between the unit's current location, waypoint, and destination square do not block movement.)
8.4
. Units inside a besieged city may not move out of the city tac square unless they move only 1 tactical square and they move to attack a besieging unit. Units outside a besieged city that are not hostile to the side controlling the city may not enter the city tac square. Units that are hostile to the controlling side may enter the tac square of the city and a combat will result.
8.5. If a unit is in the same strategic square as an enemy or neutral unit, then if its path to its destination or waypoint square in tactical movement crosses through impassible terrain, or crosses a cliff (a border between a high hill tactical square and a non-hill tactical square) then the unit's path is blocked and it does not move at all. This rule applies when the moving unit is in the same strategic square as a neutral only if the neutral unit is in its home nation or a nation with which it is actively allied. This limitation is not applied if there is no enemy or neutral unit present in the square. [More Details] If a unit moves in more than one tactical phase, and an enemy or neutral unit enters the square between tactical phases (either between tac phases 2 and 3, or between phases tac 4 and 5) then the limitation will apply in the tac phases after the enemy or neutral unit enters.
8.6. In each tactical phase, units move in order of initiative, lower numbers moving first. Fast units with sufficient strength at the start of the turn (250 or more for LC and MC, 100 or more for LA) get initiative numbers between 1 and 2 and hence move first; all other units get initiative numbers between 3 and 5 and move. Units with higher fatigue get higher numbers; units drawing communications from US1AQ get lower numbers.Within each group, units move in a random order, and the order is different in each tactical phase of the turn.
8.7. Units may not cross from one side of a river or mountain range to another in tactical movement unless they use an appropriate ford or pass square as the waypoint for the movement; units ordered to cross without using a ford/pass waypoint will not move.
8.8. Units may also be ordered to engage the nearest enemy combat unit. Units may be ordered to engage in specified starting and ending phases. If a unit has two or more enemy units that are equally near, it will attack the one requiring the fewest diagonal moves. If a unit has both an engage order and a destination or waypoint order, it will move to the waypoint and destination, and begin to engage the nearest enemy unit in the tactical phase after the one in which it reaches its destination. Units will not engage an enemy headquarters unit unless there is no enemy combat unit available to engage. If a unit fails a morale check, it will cease attempting to engage enemy units.
8.9. Units can specify the line in which they wish to fight if they enter combat during tactical movement. A unit cannot occupy the second line or rear unless another unit occupies the line or lines in front of them; if not, the unit will automatically move forward as required. They can also specify the attitude they wish to take if they find themselves attacking or defending in combat. Assault and last-ditch defense mode represent extreme effort in combat resulting in increased combat strength, but heavier losses. Skirmish mode represents a lighter form of combat, and evade mode represents leaving a screen in front of the position while keeping the majority of the unit disengaged.
8.10. Units can indicate the desire to support same-side or  units in combat. If a unit has an order to support, then after all other tactical movement is finished, the unit will move to join a battle in progress. Units must specify a location at which to support and a radius around that location. For example, if a unit specifies support location 10-5 and a radius of 2, then the unit will move to support any combat in the box between columns 8 and 12 and between rows 3 and 7. If there are two or more combats in side the support radius, then the supporting unit will move to the closest one; if two are equally close, it will move to the one in which the odds against its side are the worst. Support moves cannot be longer than two tactical squares, or three tactical squares for LC/MC/HA units.
8.11. Units can also move to intercept the movement of other units. If a unit has an order to intercept, then it specifies an interception location and a radius around that location in the same manner that it specifies a box for a support order. If an enemy unit moves through the specified box, or if a neutral unit does so when the given unit is in a strategic square controlled by its own state, then the unit with the intercept order will move to engage the enemy/neutral unit if it can do so before the enemy/neutral unit completes its move. [More Details] Interception of enemy units will result in a combat. Interception of neutral units will not, but will halt the neutral unit's tactical move at the intercept point. The interception will take place when the moving unit reaches the edge of the intercepting unit's intercept box if possible; if not, it will be made at the first possible point of contact, which may or may not be inside the intercept box. If the enemy/neutral unit is moving only one square, then interception is not possible. If two units attempt to intercept the same enemy/neutral unit, then the first one to move in interception determines the point of interception, and all subsequent interceptions must take place at that point. A unit may move to intercept an enemy/neutral unit whose point of interception is farther away than the unit's movement allowance (4 or 6 squares depending on branch) but if the interception requires the unit to move more than its tac movement allowance, it will move only to its allowed limit, and will not intercept the enemy/neutral unit. A unit which has selected evade as its attack mode may not intercept the movement of enemy/neutral units.
8.12.  In any given tactical phase, a unit will make only one move from among specified move, engage move, and intercept move. If a unit is ordered to make more than one kind of move, then the priority is as follows: If an opportunity to make an intercept move arises before the unit's opportunity to make its own move, then it will do so, and will not make an engage or specified move that tactical phase. If not, then when it gets the opportunity to make its own tactical move, it will make a specified move if it has one, if not it will make an engage move if it has that order, and if it has neither it will not move. In the latter case only, if an opportunity to intercept later in the tactical phase occurs, the unit will intercept; in the former two cases it will not, since it has already made one of the other types of move. However, a unit which has made a specified move, an engage move, or an intercept move may also make a support move in the support phase if it can otherwise do so. (For instance, units that intercepted will normally be in combat and hence unable to make a support move.)

9. Combat

9.1. During a campaign turn, if at the end of a tactical movement phase, two or more units hostile to one another are in the same tactical square, combat begins. Combat cannot occur on peace or truce turns. Combat occurs in two segments, a firing segment and a melee segment.
9.2.  Army and corps headquarters units do not engage in combat. If they are not in a fort, and an enemy unit enters their tactical square, there is a small chance that they will shatter (see section 12 below). If they do not shatter, they will move to any adjacent passable square not containing a hostile unit, and take no further part in the battle. If there is no adjacent passable square not containing a hostile unit, they will shatter. If a corps HQ is carrying supplies when it is shattered or forced to fall back, the supplies will be destroyed. If a headquarters unit is in a fort, it will remain in the battle and surrender if its side loses.
9.3. At the beginning of combat, units place themselves into lines according to their orders. There must be at least one unit in the front line, and there cannot be a unit in the rear unless there is at least one in the second line. If no unit wishes to be in the first line, or the second line when a unit is needed there, a unit is selected randomly and placed in that line.
9.4. The number of units that can fit in the front line depends on the size of each unit and the length of the battle line. If the attacking side entered the tactical square where the combat occurred from one direction, then the front line can contain up to 3000 infantry, or 1000 cavalry, or 375 artillerists, or combination thereof where 1 infantryman takes up 1 space, 1 cavalryman takes up 3 spaces, 1 artilleryman takes up 8 spaces, and 3000 spaces total are available. If an infantry or cavalry unit has a battery attached, then 100 of its men count as artillerists. For example, an infantry unit with 1500 men and no battery takes up 1500 spaces, but one with 1500 men and 1 battery takes up 2200 spaces (1400 infantry plus 100 artillerists at 8 spaces each). If more units wish to be in the front line that there is space available for them, then each unit contributes enough strength in proportion to fill the front line, and the remaining strength fights from the rear line (even if no unit is in the second line). If a side's front line is reduced by casualties in the firing phase, then the strength in the rear line will return to the front line to fill the space. If the attackers entered from more than one direction, then the front line extends by another 3000 men for each direction the attackers came from, or 1500 if an additional direction is adjacent to another, or 0 if an additional direction is adjacent to two others. Example: If attackers came from the north and east, the front can contain 6,000 men, but if they came from the north and northeast, only 4500, and if they came from north, northeast, and east, again 6,000. The second line has the same size limit as the first. The rear can contain twice as many men as the first two lines. Any men who cannot fit in the rear line either do not contribute to their side's combat strength at all (but the units still take casualties).
9.5. When infantry units are attacked by an enemy force containing primarily cavalry, they will form squares. When in squares, they fire less effectively but fight in melee more effectively. Infantry units will not form squares if the attacking enemy contains an infantry unit, nor if it contains 4 or more batteries per 1000 attacking cavalrymen. Lancer cavalry are more effective when attacking squares. A side whose infantry units have formed squares cannot have their flanks turned but the units are much more likely to be trapped and shattered if their side loses the engagement.
9.6. The effective strength of a unit depends on the number of men and batteries in the unit, the quality, experience, morale, and fatigue of the troops, the terrain in which the battle takes place, attack or defense mode (units in assault and last-ditch defense mode have higher effective strength; units in skirmish and evade modes ave lower effective strength), whether the unit is getting communications from US1AQ, and whether the unit moved to enter the battle square or not (units that did not move have a higher effective strength). Militia fight at reduced strength if moving, and if not in a town tactical square. In a battle, if there is a unit on one side which did not move in the tactical phase (this can be true of only one side) then that side is defending, uses its defensive mode, and gains the defensive terrain bonuses; the other side is attacking. If all units in a battle moved tactically into the battle during the phase (whether by ordered movement, interception, or support movement) then all units on both sides use their offensive combat mode and do not get defensive terrain bonuses. Units in sufficiently manned forts, meaning those with sufficient men to cover one-third of the fort's maximum capacity, have higher effective strengths. [More Details]
9.7. In the firing segment, all infantry in the front line and all artillery in the first or second line (including batteries attached to infantry or cavalry units) may fire. If between 1/3 and 2/3 of a side's effective melee strength is cavalry, and the battle is not in a fort, then the side receives a bonus for engaging with mixed arms. The casualties that a side inflicts on its opponent are proportional to the effective strength of its firing units, and are distributed among the enemy units in the first and second lines in the combat in proportion to their strengths, increased if the unit is in assault or last-ditch defense mode, and reduced if the unit is in skirmish or evade mode. Units in the rear line will not receive casualties in the firing segment. Each unit that engages in the firing segment receives 1 fatigue point, including an infantry or cavalry unit with an attached battery for which only the battery fires. Units in sufficiently manned forts receive reduced casualties. A level 1 fort reduces them by 50%, and each additional fort level reduces them another 10%, up to a level 5 fort which reduces casualties by 90%.
9.8. Units that suffer 2% or greater losses in the firing segment must take a morale check. The chance of passing the morale check depends on the unit's quality, experience, number of men lost, and whether the side's flanks are anchored or exposed. [More Details] A side has one flank anchored if there is an adjacent square containing same-side or actively allied troops or impassible terrain. A side has both flanks anchored if there are two adjacent squares, not in adjacent directions (example, not north and northeast), with same-side or actively allied troops or impassible terrain and the front line is at least 75% full (ie, 2250 infantry, 750 cavalry, 280 artillerists, or a proportional number of mixed troops if the line is 3000 men long.) In battles where at least one unit is in a fort, neither side's flanks can be turned. If a unit fails its morale check it may retreat up to 4 tactical squares, or may rout to an adjacent strategic square, but units in forts that fail morale checks will not move. Units that retreat incur 2 fatigue points; units that rout incur 3 fatigue points. If a unit fails a morale check and is unable to retreat or rout, it shatters. Units that rout will pick a direction randomly, and may pick a direction that is blocked even if open directions were available. Units that retreat will pick an open direction if one is available. If a retreating or routing unit has its movement blocked, it will shatter. Units that rout or retreat will cancel any engage orders they may have. [ More Details ]
9.9. In the melee segment, all units in the front and second line engage at full strength and all units in the rear line, except cavalry units, engage at half strength. Units that engage incur 1 fatigue point. If between 1/3 and 2/3 of a side's effective strength is cavalry, and the battle is not in a fort, then the side receives a bonus for engaging with mixed arms. Sides with exposed flanks suffer a penalty unless the attacking side contains more than 90% cavalry (in which case they form square). The casualties that a side inflicts on its opponent are proportional to the effective strength of the side and are distributed among the enemy units in the combat in proportion to their strengths. Units in sufficiently manned forts will received reduced casualties. A level 1 fort reduces them by 50%, and each additional fort level reduces them another 10%, up to a level 5 fort which reduces casualties by 90%. The side that loses the melee suffers increased casualties, and after the melee, fall back to an adjacent tactical square. Units in forts will not fall back, but will surrender. Units falling back will move to a tactical square containing same-side or actively allied units when possible. Units falling back receive 1 point of fatigue. They cannot fall back to an impassible square or to one containing enemy units. If no legal fallback direction is available, they will shatter. [ More Details ]
9.10. Units in attack or defense mode will switch to skirmish mode (to reduce casualties) if the odds in the melee phase are at least 2:1 against them. Units in assault or last-ditch defense mode will not do so.
9.11. Units that suffer losses in the melee segment must take morale checks under the same rules as units that take losses in the firing segment, and rout or retreat similarly.
9.12. At the end of each phase, if a sufficiently large number of units in a strategic square have routed or retreated, all other units of the same side must take morale checks. If they fail, they join the retreat or rout, or surrender if their retreats or routs are blocked by enemy units or impassible terrain. (Note: Not yet implemented.)
9.13. Casualties suffered in combat are dividing into four types; killed, wounded, prisoners, and stragglers. A fraction of a unit's stragglers will rejoin the unit on each successive turn (unless the unit is in a besieged fort), and will rejoin faster if the unit has no strategic movement order. Wounded and prisoners rejoin the unit at the end of the campaign and are available for subsequent campaigns.
9.14.  Artillery units, and infantry and cavalry units with attached artillery batteries, that are not engaged in combat and did not move in a given tactical phase may bombard enemy units in adjacent squares in that same tactical phase. They may move in earlier or later tactical phases. Bombardment takes place after movement and before other combat. Units that bombard may not fire into tactical squares containing same-side, actively allied, or neutral units. Gibraltar city tactical square may not be bombarded. Units bombarding receive a +50% modifier to their strength. Bombardment produces casualties for the bombarded units in exactly the same way as other combat does. Bombardment can also reduce the level of a fort. The chance of this is 1% for every 350 modified strength bombarding.  Medium artillery (including artillery of infantry units) cannot damage forts above level 2; light and horse artillery (including artillery of cavalry units) cannot damage forts above level 1.

10. Communications and Supply

10.1. During campaign turns, units in GITM are either in communications or not in communications. Army headquarters units are a source of communications and are in communications at all times. Corps headquarters units are in communications if they are have a line of contact to an army headquarters unit not longer than 5 strategic squares, or if in the same strategic square as a same-side-controlled or active-ally-controlled city. Other units are in communications if they are have a line of contact to a corps headquarters unit not longer than 2 strategic squares that is in communications, or if they are in the same strategic square as a same-side-controlled or active-ally-controlled city.
10.2.  Two units have a line of contact if there is a path between them along the strategic map that does not enter impassible terrain, does not enter a square containing an enemy unit, does not a square adjacent to an enemy light cavalry or medium cavalry unit unless a same-side or actively allied combat unit is also in the square or in the square of the enemy cavalry unit, and does not pass diagonally between enemy units, and both units have a clear path to the edge of their tactical maps in the direction of that path. [More Details]  Units have a line of contact with a city if they would be in contact with a friendly unit in the city tactical square, unless the city is under siege (see next rule). Two cities have a line of contact to one another if they are controlled by the same side or allied sides, and units of the controlling side in each of their tactical squares would have a line of contact between them.
10.3. Cities may be besieged. A city is besieged if there is at least one unit in, or adjacent to, the city of the state controlling the city or actively allied to that state, the unmodified strength of hostile units in tactical squares adjacent to the city is more than 110% of the unmodified strength of same-side or actively allied units in the city tactical square or adjacent tactical squares, and if there is a fort in the city, hostile unmodified strength is at least half the capacity of the fort. Supplies may not be moved in or out of besieged cities. Units in besieged cities may draw supply and communications only from the city or from a Q unit in the city; units outside a besieged city may not draw supplies or communications from the city or from a Q unit inside the city. A siege can only begin at the end of a movement phase. Thus, if a city is not besieged at the start of a movement phase, it will not become besieged until the end of that phase, and units in the city which are attacked will be able to retreat out of the city if they lose the battle. At the end of a turn, in the siege surrender phase, units in besieged cities which have no supplies may surrender. The chance that the units will surrender is 1/3. One roll is made for the whole garrison, so either all units in the city will surrender or none will.
10.4. Units not in communications lose one square from their strategic movement allowance.
10.5. During campaign turns, active units in GITM consume supplies. Inactive units do not use supplies, and during peace and truce turns all units do not use supplies. Supplies are stored in cities and distributed via corps headquarters to units. A corps headquarters can draw supplies from a same-side or actively allied city if it has a line of contact to the city not longer than 8 strategic squares. A unit, including an army headquarters, can draw supplies from a same-side or actively allied corps headquarters if it has a line of contact to the headquarters not longer than 2 strategic squares. One corps HQ can supply a maximum of 18 units, including itself. A unit can draw supplies directly from a same-side or actively allied city if it is in the city's strategic square and the city is not under siege, or the unit is in the city tac square. A unit can also requisition supplies if it is in a strategic square with open or river terrain, there are no enemy units in the same strategic square, and there are no more than 3 total units in the square. A unit can enter "None" for its supply source if it does not wish to draw supplies; it will still requisition supplies if it can. If a CQ does not wish to draw supplies, it will not draw them from a city but will still give the supplies it carries to units that request supplies from it.
10.6 Any commander of an army headquarters unit, or the War Minister, can order supplies moved from one city to another if the cities have a line of contact to the city not longer than 10 strategic squares. Supplies may also be moved from one city to another if both cities are port cities (including off-map ports), are connected to the same sea area or adjacent sea areas, and there are no hostile ships in either port or in the connected sea area(s). Supplies may be moved only from the city in which they began the turn (ie, supplies cannot make two consecutive moves on one turn) and no city may originate movement of more than 60 units of supply per turn. Supplies moved through off-map ports count against the limit of 60 stores moved per turn through those ports. During peace and truce turns, the distance limit of 10 squares or adjacent sea areas and the quantity limit of 60 units do not apply. On peace and truce turns any number of supplies that started the turn in the city can be moved any distance.
10.7. At the start of each turn, units consume 1 unit of supplies, then draw more supplies if they desire. Units, including corps headquarters, will consume a supply they are currently carrying if they can, and otherwise will consume one from their supply source if one is available. Units using a corps headquarters for a supply source will consume from the corps headquarters' supply source if it has one, otherwise will draw from the stores carried by the corps headquarters. When drawing supplies to carry during the turn, corps headquarters units can carry up to 12 units of supplies; other units can carry 0 or 1 unit of supplies. Commanders indicate the desired level of supply they wish to carry in the supply level box on the orders page, and the unit, if it has a supply source, will draw or unload enough supplies to bring itself up to, or down to, that level. except that if an enemy unit is present, or it is out of supply, it cannot unload. Units with a corps headquarters for a supply source will draw from the corps headquarters' supply source if it has one, from the corps headquarters' carried stores if not. A unit that indicates a supply level of 0 will still draw supplies for immediate consumption if it can do so. If the supply level box is left blank, the unit will neither draw nor unload supplies, but will keep the amount it had at the end of consumption. Supplies are drawn before supply movements and purchases occur, so a unit can only draw supplies from a city if those supplies were present in the city at the end of the preceding turn.
10.8.  During campaign turns, units that do not have supplies to consume suffer losses from desertion each turn that they lack supplies, unless in a besieged fort. Units that requisition supplies suffer reduced losses from desertion during requisitioning. The number of men lost depend on the quality and morale of the unit. [More Details] Supply losses are divided between prisoners and stragglers, and will rejoin their units under rule 9.13.  Units in high desert strategic terrain cannot requisition supplies; if they are unable to consume a supply during a turn they are destroyed. Units in besieged cities do not lose deserters, but there is a 33% chance that they may surrender if there are no supplies in the city. If one unit in the fort surrenders, then all will do so.
10.9. Infantry and artillery units in GITM also consume ammunition in combat. Units can carry five units of ammunition, and expend one unit of ammunition in any tactical phase that they fire or engage in melee. Units automatically replenish ammunition whenever they draw supplies.
10.10. Infantry units that are out of ammunition cannot fire, and fight in melee at half strength. Artillery units that are out of ammunition cannot fire, and fight in melee at 10% strength.
10.11. At the end of each turn, units locate the nearest available source of supply; corps HQs locate the nearest city, other units locate the nearest corps HQ. This supply location is listed on the unit's status report. [More Details] Unit commanders may specify a different supply source on the campaign orders submission form if they wish to do so; if not, or if the ordered supply source is not valid, the unit will use the one listed on its status report. If a city changes hands or a CQ is disbanded, then the unit may select a different supply source at the start of the following turn.

11. Inactive Units

11.1. During campaign turns, units in GITM can be inactive in three situations. 1) Units aboard transports become inactive until they unload into a GITM map square. 2) Units located in garrisons of PATE ports which are not on the GITM map (Malta, Corfu, and all Caribbean ports) are inactive. 3) Units on the GITM map can be inactivated by the commander or by the War Minister.
11.2. A single square on the GITM strategic map cannot contain more than three inactive units (including militia) if it contains a city, and not more than two inactive units if it does not contain a city. Inactive militia units in the cities in which they were raised do not count against these limits. Attempts to inactivate units when the maximum number of inactive units are already present will fail. Units may not inactivate when neutral or enemy units are in their strategic square.
11.3. Inactive units do not require communications or supply and do not take supply losses. They do not move or detect enemy units. They will, however, automatically activate if enemy or neutral units enter their strategic square. Inactive units appear on report maps with a tent icon instead of a flag icon. They do not provide intelligence information. They are listed at the end of the position report.
11.4. Inactive units on transports or on the GITM map do not engage in combat. Inactive units in port garrisons will fight if enemy units land at the port. The normal combat rules do not apply to fights in garrisons, because those battles do not take place on the GITM map. Rules for these combats are found in the PATE rules, rule 10.2. as are other relevant rules for units on transports and in garrisons.
11.5. Players may send orders for inactive units. These orders will not cause the unit to activate. However, if the unit is activated during the turn for some reason (for example, if an enemy unit enters its strategic square) then the unit will begin carrying out the orders it has received at that time. Note that if an inactive unit is ordered to move in strat phase 1, but is not activated until strat phase 2, then it will not attempt to carry out its strat phase 1 order, as that phase has passed.

12. Shattered Units

12.1. If a unit is required to retreat or rout, but its attempt to do so is blocked by an enemy or neutral unit, or if it takes a morale check when its fatigue is 16 or greater, then the unit will shatter. Units that shatter lose 40% to 80% of their strength, half as stragglers and half as prisoners.
12.2. Upon shattering, a unit will immediately move to a strategic square with no enemy units and commence reforming. If the unit has a line of contact to a friendly-controlled city (other than one in the unit's current strategic square) not longer than 15 strategic squares, it will move 3 or 4 squares along that line. If that square contains an enemy unit, the shattered unit will instead locate in an adjacent square, selected randomly, until it finds one with no enemy unit present. If the unit has no line of contact to any same-side or actively allied city in a different strategic square, then it will fall back towards a coastal square 3 to 8 squares away with a friendly TR in the associated port's coastal waters, if one exists (this is to handle cases where the unit has made an amphibious landing). If it cannot find such a coastal square either, then it is destroyed.
12.3. Shattered units take 2 to 3 turns to reform, including the one on which they are shattered. They reform at the end of the turn on which they complete reforming. While shattered, they do not report intelligence in any way.
12.4. If an enemy unit enters the square where the shattered unit is reforming, then the shattered unit will again move 3 to 4 squares along the line of contact to a same-side or actively allied city (or be destroyed it if has none) and will require an additional turn to reform.
12.5. When the unit is ready to reform, it reappears as an active unit on the map if it has supply and communications. If it does not have supply or communications, then it attempts to reform on the following turn. If it cannot reform for three turns, it is destroyed.
 
GITM rules written and maintained by Stephen Schmidt.